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Full text of "Annals of the Minnesota Historical Society"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/annalsofminnesot00minn_2 



Go 

977.6 
M661a 
1850-51 
1730246 



' l« y 

ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 01053 2072 

ANNALS 



MINNESOTA 



HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 



THE YEAR A. P., 1850-1 



coMrRisixe 




AN ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT, THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THK SECMiKTASY, 
TWO PAPERS BY REV. S. R. RIOGS, ONE ON THE »• DESTINY OF THP. INDIAN 
TRIBES," THE OTHER ON THE " DAKOTA LANGUAGE," AND LASTLY 
" A MEMOIR OP THE HISTORY AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 
OF MNNESOTA, &c, &c, &c. 



ST. PAUL: 

D. A. ROBERTSON, PRINTER. 

1851. 



i 



• > REYNOLDS Hl^TO°!CAL 
GENEALOGY COLLECT ION 



1730246 



ANNUAL PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

"MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY." 

The annual meeting of the "Minnesota Historical Society," took 
place at the Methodist Episcopal Church, in the town of Saint Paul, on 
Monday the 13th day of January, A. D. 1851, agreeably to the Consti- 
tution of said Society, and a notice given in the newspapers of the Terri- 
tory. At 2 o'clock, P. M., of said day, Gov. ALEXANDER RAMSEY 
President of the Society, took the Chair, assisted by the Vice Presidents. 
Hon. David Olmsted and Martin McLeod. The Secretary of the 
Society was present discharging the duties of his office. The Rev. Mr. 
Parsons addressed the Throne of Grace. 

It being the first meeting at which Governor Ramsey was present, 
presiding, he delivered on taking the Chair, a salutatory address, which 
is herewith published. The Secretary of the Society presented his an- 
nual report, which follows the address of the President, and is published 
herewith in that order. 

The Hon. Martin McLeod, read to the meeting an interesting letter 
and paper, drawn up by the Rev. S. R. Riggs of this Territory. The 
latter is on the subject " of the Destiny of the Indian Tribes," and the 
paper treats ot the "Dakota or Sioux Language." They are both, the 
letter and paper, herewith published, together with the "Prospectus for 
publishing a Dakota Lexicon, under the patronage of the Historical 
Society of Minnesota." 

George L. Becker, Esq., read to the Society, " A memoir of the his- 
tory and physical geography of Minnesota," by Henry R. Schoolcraft, 
L. L. D., which accompanies these proceedings, and is herewith printed. 

C. K. SMITH, Sec. 

1 



ADDRESS 

or 

GOV. A. RAMSEY, PRESIDENT OF THE SOCIETY. 

Gentlemen: On assuming the Chair for the first time since I have been 
honored with the Presidency of this Society, I seize the opportunity — 
the earliest that has offered, to express my thanks for the kind prefer- 
ence which has thus been manifested towards me. 

It may seem a strange thing, even to some among our own citizens, 
and still stranger to people elsewhere, that a Historical Society should 
have been formed in this Territory, less than a year after its organiza- 
tion, when its history was apparently but a few months old, when trie 
wilderness was, as it is yet, around us, when the smoke of Indian, 
lodges still intercepted our view of the horizon, when our very name was 
so new, that men disputed as to its orthography, and formed parties in 
contesting its literal meaning. 

A Historical Society in a land of yesterday! Such an announcement 
would indeed naturally excite at the first glance, incredulity and wonder 
in the general mind. Well might it be exclaimed, the country 
which has no past, can have no history;" with force could it be ask- 
ed "where are your records?" and if we even had them, it would not be 
surprising if it were still demanded, what those records could possibly 
record? — what negotiations! — what legislation? — what progress in arts or 
intellect could they possibly exhibit?" "Canst thou gather figs from 
thorns, or grapes from thistles?" 

True, pertinent as such queries might seem, yet nevertheless they would 
be dictated by error — they would be founded in great misapprehension; 
for Minnesota has a history, and that not altogether an unwritten one, 
which can unravel many a page of deep, engrossing interest; which is 
rich in tales of daring enterprise, of faithful endurances, of high hopes; 
which is marked by The early travellers' foot-prints, and by the ancient 
explorer's pencil; which is glowing with the myths and traditions of our 
aboriginal race, sprinkled over with their battle fields, with the sites of their 
ancient, villages, and with the wah-kaun stones of their teeming my- 
thology. 

In Europe, nigh two hundred years ago, as in America at this day. 
Minnesota — I mean that region which is around and about us — was a 
land towards which many ail eye was turned, and in regard to which 
fact and fancy wove a wondrous tale of interest and romance. In con- 
sequence of this, from the time when Father Pierre Menard, the devoted* 
Jesuit Missionary, was lost an the forest in 1853 while crossing Kee-wee- 
nah Peninsula, and his sad fate conjectured only from his cassock and 
breviary, long afterwords found preserved as " Medicine" charms,, 
amongst the wild Dakotas of our territory, down to the time whet* 
Schoolcraft, in 1832, traced our giant Mississippi — a giant mofe wonderful 
than the hundred armed Briareus— to its origin in the gushing fountain 



5 



ofltasca Lake, Minnesota has continued a favorite field of research, the 
bourn ot many a traveller, and the theme of many a traveller's story. 

Here Hennepin in 1688, was first to break the silence of these north- 
ern wilds with a white man's voice, in giving to the foaming waters of 
St. Anthony Falls, their baptismal name in honor of his patron Saint. 
Here was the scene of his captivity among the M'day-wah-kaun-twan 
Dakotas, and here he experienced the compassion and protection of 
Wak-zee-koo-lay,\\\e great Nahdawessy Chief. 

Here too, not very long afterwards, Baron La-IIontan, journeyed; and 
in this territory that romance of geography, his La Longue Riviere, 
(apparently the St. Peters joined to the Missouri) had its location and 
due western course — the creature of La Hontan's imagination, or rather 
of truth and fable curiously interwoven and intermingled. 

More reliable than either, the gallant Le Seur, a brave, enterprising 
and truthful spirit, in 1700 explored the sky colored water of the St. 
Peter's to its Blue Earth tributary, and in the vicinity of his log fort 
L'Huillier, on the banks of the Mahnkahto, first broke the virgin soil 
of our territory with the spade and pick-axe, in delving for copper ore, 
tons of which, or a green earth supposed to be the ore of that metal, he 
had conveyed to his native France. He it was, also, who appears to 
have been the first white man or trader, that supplied the •« Scioux " and 
ff Aiavvis" (loways) with fire arms and other products of civilized labor; 
and to his truthful and generally accurate Journal, (but recently brought 
to our knowledge by the indefatigable researches of our esteemed and 
learned fellow-member, the Rev. Mr. Neill,) we are likewise indebted for 
the best statistics we possess of the early history of the Dakota race, 
which then, fully a century and a half ago, as now, occupied the greater 
portion of our territory. 

Following Le Seur, after a considerable interval, came Captain Jon- 
athan Carver in 1766, and however extravagant we may regard some of 
his statements, and however discreditable we may deem his efforts to 
engross millions of acres, including nearly all the inhabited portion of 
Minnesota, and the very land upon which our town stands, by a pretend- 
ed deed of gift from the Indians, still we must concede him to have been 
an adventurer of no mean courage and enterprise, and his narrative 
a valuable link in the chain of our early annals. 

Still later, and within the present century, Cass and Schoolcraft, 
Nicollet and Fremont, Long and Keating, have visited and explored 
ouruand; and Pike, too, the heroic Zebulon Pike, who in 1802, during 
the " Expedition to the Upper Mississippi," of which he has presented so 
admirable a narrative, gave promise of that fortitude, courage and deter- 
mination, which marked him throughout a glorious career, until his man- 
gled body surrendered up his noble spirit, happy in the triumph of his 
country's flag, on the plains of Canada. 

These are our records — these in part, our historiographers. Their 
works form stepping stones, across at least that portion of the river of 
time, which in this! region, for about two hundred years, has rolled its 
tide occasionally within view of the white race. The gaps between, it is 
not unfitly our duty and the object of this society to lessen and to 
close up. 

The materials for this purpose are not scarce, though somewhat diffi- 
cult to embody in a tangible or reliable form. Not a foot of ground that 
we tread, but has been trod by nations before us. Wild tribes of men 



6 

have marched their armies over the site of our towns and fields — 
fierce battles have been fought where ere long churches may rear their 
spires — our ploughshares may turn furrows amidst the graves of buried 
races, and our children pla^ perhaps, where generations of children 
have played centuries betore them. Dakota and Ojibway, Shiann 
and Ausinabwaun, Winnebago and loway, Ozaukie and Musquakie, each, 
in turn or together, dwelt in the land, hunted and warred through it, 
migrated to and from it. When the first Jesuit Missionary, on 3 hun- 
dred and ninety years ago, visited Lake Superior, he found the Chippe- 
was and Sioux engaged in that war, which has continued with but little 
intermission nearly to the present time. How long before— for how 
many centuries previous, this contest was waged, we know not— the re- 
cords are dim, the traditions vague and uncertain. But we do know, 
that from the St. Croix, to the Mille Lacs, the ancient home of the 
M'day-wah-kauntwaun Sioux, whose rich maple bottoms are a golgotha of 
hostile bones, through all the midland hunting grounds to Lake Superior, 
and northwest by wild rice shallows to the fertile lands of lied Lake, 
(whose waters have so often drank blood from battles on its shores 
as to have gained the ensanguined cognomen which we mildly translate 
" Red,") we can trace the terrible results of this warfare of the Algonquin 
and Dakota races,— a warfare which in its results completed that 
general disruption of all the old geographical relations of the various 
tribes of Minnesota, which the Dakotas, perhaps, were the first to dis- 
arrange, when they located on the Upper Mississippi. 

The incidents of ttfis war — the battles, where fought — the victories, 
where and by whom won — the councils held and alliances formed — 
the advances, the retreats, and. the final conquests — are among 
the inquiries which this society will consider not unworthy of institu- 
ting. By comparison of the records — by ascertaining corroborating 
traditions — we can likewise endeavor to fix the period when the fire 
arms and iron tomahawk, which their fur trade with the French early 
placed in the hands of the Chippewas, proved too powerful for the 
flint headed arrows, and wooden war-clubs of the ancient Sioux ; and 
when, in consequence, the M'day-wahkawn-twauns moved down from 
their villages on Mille Lacs, and the Teetwaun, Yaunktwaun, and See- 
seetwaun Council Fires, struck their tents, abandoned their homes upon 
the Upper Mississippi, and invaded the western buffalo plains where they 
now reside, sweeping before them the Shians and other tribes who were 
then in possession of them. 

A subject for our investigation scarcely less interesting, is the history 
of that revolted branch of the Dakota family proper, who in their own 
language are called the Hoh-hays, but who are known to us only by their 
Chippewa name of Assin-abwauns, or Stone Sioux, from the former 
residence among the rocky ledges abou' the Lake of the Woods, named 
by the Jesuits in their maps more than a century and a half ago. Lake 
of the Assineboins. The causes which led to, and the period at which 
occurred, the disruption of the ties of brotherhood, which extinguished 
one of the grand Council Fires of the Dakota race, and allied its ele- 
ments with the Algonquin enemy against the parent tribe — whether it 
originated, as has been said, in a second Helen and a second Paris, like 
the guilty pair whose guilty flight lighted the torch of discord among the 
Pelasgian tribes of Greece, and led to the destruction of Troy — or wheth- 
er other reasons operated to produce the fratricidal contest — it might be 



1 



7 

well to determine, — as well as the time at which they too migrated west- 
ward, but in a more northern line, towards the White Earth and Yellow 
Stone tributaries of the Missouri. 

Nor would it be foreign to the object of this association, to question in- 
to the degree of credit to be attached to the M'day-wah-kaun-twaun tra- 
dition, which assigns to the Ioways, the former possession of the St. Pe- 
ters river country, to its mouth, where they were found by the Dakotas 
and driven southwest; and to what extent this tradition is confirmed by 
) the probable fact, that in 1700, when Le Seur visited the Mahnkahtoh, 

the Ioways yet held the lands in this Territory about the head waters of 
the Des Moines, from which, subsequently to his time, we know they must 
have been further driven by the Sioux, low down on that river ; and 
whether, also, this last retrogression was not immediately occasioned by 
that western invasion of the Dakotas of the Upper Mississippi, which 
has already been alluded to. 

Another inquiry which suggests itself pregnant with equal interest, is as 
to the probability, or otherwise, that this expulsion of the Ioways from the 
St. Peters, caused the separation off from them into distinct bands or tribes, 
of the Otoes, Omahas, and Winnebagoes, who arc unquestionably of 
the same origin with the Ioways, and that too not very remotely — if, as [ 
understand, they all speak one language, with slight differences, of pro- 
nunciation, the result ofisolation, but which differences do not prevent 
their readily comprehending each other — and in this connection, like- 
wise, we may with propriety discuss the probability of the conjecture that 
the Winnebagoes, at the separation, were but a band of a few families of 
ioways, who, escaping from the Dakota invasion, eastward instead pf 
I south-west, settled at the head of Green Bay, where, near two hundred 

years since, their village — still a small one — was found by Marquette, who 
designates in his map the bay, as the Baye des Puans and the village as 
that of the Puans. 

Here surrounded by Algonquin tribes, the hereditary enemies of their 
enemy, they were safe from molestation by the Upper Dakotas; and in 
the progress of time, the Hoh-tchungk-grahs, (as they call themselves.) 
growing strong with continued peace, and increasing gradually in 
numbers, spread themselves without opposition over a considerable ex- 
tent of country to the southward, presenting finally to the eyes of men of 
science, that anomaly which has puzzled even the historian Bancroft to 
account for — an outlier of the great Pawnee Dakota group of tribes, 
situated far towards the east, and entirely amongst the Algonquin fam- 
ily of tribes, with whose cognate languages, their's has not the slightest 
affinity. 

Dwelling thus upon the origin of tribes, it may not be out of place to 
refer to the prevalent opinion among men, who have investigated the sub- 
ject, that the Chippewas who are spread over the northern portion of this 
territory and Wisconsin, are emigrants from the East since the discov- 
ery of America; and that the Sioux who in ancient times occupied tht* 
exact position that the former do now. first knew these indomitable ene- 
mies as did the earliest white men who visited them, as dwellers at the 
Falls of St. Mary of Lake Superior. As Hrah-hrah-twauns, or peo- 
iple of the Falls, is the Dakota proper name for them, just as Saulteurs, 
having the same signification, is that bestowed upon them by the French, 
the opinion that they came from the East or North, crossing from the 
^Canada side by the Falls, is not without plausibility to sustain it. 



Gentlemen : 1 have thrown out these hints, embodying speculations 
and theories to be sure, but speculations nevertheless that are not unin- 
teresting, which may stimulate to research, and I hope eliminate some 
facts from the chaotic oblivion in which our aboriginal history is covered 
up. But while attending to these, I would not that we should forget the 
more tangible objects for which we are associated. A library that shall 
embrace works upon American history, in all its branches; that shall 
gather upon its shelves, the narratives of early and later travellers to this 
and other portions of the great West; that shall be rich in archceologv 
and ethnology ; that in books upon the science of languages, and in vo- 
cabularies of our aboriginal dialects, shall present an inviting field for 
the student in comparative philology — such a library we should endea- 
vor to collect and preserve. Nor must we rest content with availing 
ourselves of the labor of others. There is much for each of us individu- 
ally to do. A great deal that is worth preserving is yet unwritten. — 
While the Indians are within our reach, we should hasten to record their 
traditions, to describe their manners and customs, their religious rites, 
their domestic observances, their peculiarities in peace and war; we 
should seize the opportunity as well to sketch some of the beautiful, and 
often most elaborately constructed legends, which like that concerning 
the huge man-fish which spanned the mouth of the Si. Croix and dammed 
its waters, or that of Mannebosho, the Thunderer of Lake Superior, in- 
vest with a spiritual interest nearly every lake and river, and prominent 
landmark of the country. 

In tracing the origin of the Indian races around us, we should not 
overlook the necessity of preserving their languages, as most impor- 
tant guides in this interesting, though perhaps unavailing pursuit. It 
must be evident to all, that they are destined to pass away with the tribe* 
who speak them, unless by vocabularies we promptly arrest their extinc- 
tion. The Dakota language proper — thanks to the arduous labors of 
the Messrs. Pond, Riggs, and Williamson, the devoted missionaries- 
among them, is in no danger of being los-t! — an elaborate dictionary of 
fifteen thousand words and a grammar, attest the extent of their labors, 
and are evidences that any work by members of this association in 
that direction wouM be superfluous. But there are other tribes whose 
dialects will continue to remain, in a great measure, unwritten ones, if 
some among us do not voluntarily assume the task of lexicographers, 
as I trust some will. 

While thus endeavoring to secure the fleeting memorials- of the red. 
nations who have played their parts- on this division of the world's great 
stage, it should not escape our recollection, that the white pioneers of the 
North-West, who for many a year have toiled and struggled with the 
difficulties of the wilderness, — men of intelligence and energy aacl 
fortitude — have likewise tales to tell which are not unimportant links in 
our annals. We cordially invite these to contribute their quota to our 
local history, and shall be equally obliged to them or to others for 
contributions to our museum, in which we design collecting samples- 
of the domestic manufactures, utensils, arms, dress and relies, pecu- 
liar to the old inhabitants of the land. 

In conclusion, permit me to say to this audience, while thanking thena 
for their attention, that institutions like ours, elevate the character of our 
young Territory in the eyes of friends abroad, and in the estimation* 
of men* of character and science, more than would the golden sands. q£ 



9 



California, if we possessed them. Let us not forfeit their good opinion 
by either becoming discouraged in the path we have marked out, or neg- 
lecting to do all in our power to work out the plan under which we are 
associated. 

Each member should consider it his duty to contribute something to 
the common stock, and not rest content with permitting or asking a few 
only to sustain the institution by their labors. History is said to be phi- 
losophy teaching by example; and if this be so, historical societies may 
4 be characterized as the retorts in which the elements of that philosophy 
are collected and combined. We should be careful then, not to allow 
our retort to explode from want of attention, nor to collapse for want of 
aliment, lest our future should derive no instruction from philosophical 
deductions on the events of our not uninteresting, though somewhat 
mythical and traditionary past. 



FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 

OF 

C. K, SMITH, SECRETARY OF THE SOCIETY. 

The object of this Society is "the collection and preservation of a Li- 
brary, Mineralogical and Geological specimens, Indian curiosities, and 
other matters and things connected with, and calculated to illustrate and 
perpetuate the history and settlement of said Territory ;" and the Sec- 
retary is required "to keep a register of each donation, stating from 
whom obtained, on what conditions, and other items of interest connect- 
ed therewith ; and shall report the condition of the Library and Cabinet, 
at each annual meeting." In virtue of this requirement, the undersigned 
reports : 

That a list of donations, with the names of the donors, will be found 
in appendix A. He has collected a variety of Indian curiosities, shells 
and minerals, peculiar to this region. This collection, however, is the 
individual property of the undersigned, and is a very valuable one for 
the short time that has been devoted to the subject; and it may be re- 
marked that no portion of the United States is more fruitful of mounds, 
caves and lakes, and more rich in mineralogical specimens and natural 
curiosities, than this. 

The Library consists of donations of books and documents, as per ap- 
pendix already referred to; and in this connection is added in the ap- 
pendix, a descriptive catalogue of some of the principal books of the his- 
tory of the Valley of the Missiesippi, which will be found useful as mat- 
ters of reference. 

The Society in its infancy and -in a country new, has properly made 
but little progress in the scale of literature ; its purpose being to keep 
pace with the country, it intends to illustrate and not to go ahead of it.- — 
The address delivered last year before the Society, gave a rapid, yet very 
correct sketch of the history of the country, to that time. That address 
has met the approbation of the public, at home and abroad, and been 
highly commended by the press. The Chicago Journal says of it: 

" V e have received a neatly printed pamphlet, containing a record of 
the organization of the Society, and an interesting address, from which 
we shall take occasion to make some interesting quotations. 

"It is a mark of wisdom thus to write up the history of a country from 
the title page, that in after times, when 'childish things are put away,' 
and 'by St. Paul the work' of civilization 'goes bravely on,' the growth 
of that new empire upon western waters may be all mapped out beneath 
the eye of posterity, from its infant-like creepings upon the green sward 
about St. Anthony, to the stately steppings wherewith it approached the 
door of the Union, and demanded admittance as a State." 

That address is sufficient to th^ time of its delivery — let after events 
be recorded as they occur. Nothing is so injurious to the history of a 
country as numerous and prosy historians. Let the entries be made as 
,the events occur, and that injury will be avoided, for there can then be no 
mistake about facts, and no ground for cavil. One history written, there 
will be no occasion for another. Known to be true, it will be read by 



I 



11 



sill, understood alike by all. The history of mankind now recognized 
as standard, is the mere opinion of men who lived, in some instances, a 
thousand years after the events they record, who often draw from anec- 
dotal tradition for facts, upon their invention for effects, and upon their 
imagination for embellishment, to make the work sell. Our Society 
must save Minnesota from the hands of such historians. We will write 
it ourselves, and keep it on record. Nor is it the purpose of the Society 
to collect the history of the rest of the world ; it is to preserve our own. 
Anything relating to the Mississippi Valley, its first settlement, the order 
or disorder that prevailed in its early days, its resources and peculiari- 
ties, a true account of the public affairs and public men of Minnesota, 
and if convenient those of our neighboring Valley States '; these and mat- 
ters connected with them, are objects the Society has in view. The his- 
tory of the rise and fall of governments, of wars, of battles and victories, 
it is hoped we shall never have occasion to record. The history of our 
government is already written — it is in a few words. We are citizens of 
the United States, belonging to the Federal Union, governed by the 
Federal constitution, and protected by the laws rxade in pursuance there- 
of. This is our political history, and may it remain so forever. We 
Minnesotians, as a political community, want no other place in the his- 
tory of the world, than a page in the history of the* United States. The 
history of public men,andgcod men, whether public or private, should 
be preserved. It is thus that emulation is awakened and pride gratified. 
Many men will exert themselves to be useful, if they are sure that poster- 
ity will acknowledge, and their children profit by their good deeds, who 
otherwise would live uninspected and die unregretted. How pleasant to 
the heart of those who succeed us will it be, in after times, to look over 
the history of the early days of the country, and see recorded and laud- 
ed the good deeds oftheir fathers, and equally pleasant will it be to the 
heart ot'those fathers, now to know that all their good deeds will be re- 
curred to with pride by their children in all future time. What greater 
inducement can a man have to make himself useful to his fellow-citizens ? 
With what pleasure do we recur to the noble deeds of our fathers ! Who 
does not dwell with pleasure indescribable upon the gallant deeds of his 
father or grandfather in the Revolutionary war ? Whose heart does not 
swell with pride, who reads the name of his ancestor attached to the dec- 
laration of Independence? These feelings are holy; they should be 
cherished, and we should do all \vc can to make our children feel, as 
our fathers have made us feel — proud of their fathers. A distinguished 
philosopher says, " We can pay to our children only, the debt we owe 
to our parents;" and how is this debt to be paid ? First, by kindness 
during infancy, with which our Society lias nothing to do; and second, 
by services to the public, and the exercise of great virtues, with which it 
should have something to do. A good reputation in the parent is worth 
a thousand times more to the child than a good fortune ; and the only 
way a good reputation can be transmitted to the child, is by good deeds 
being acknowledged by his cotemporaries, and made known to bis suc- 
cessors. Many of the brightest intellects and purest hearts that God ever 
made, have died in obscurity, because they were not noticed and appre- 
ciated. And although "the collection and preservation of a library, 
mineralogical and geological specimens. Indian curiosiiics, &c," is de- 
sirable, yet the preservation of that which is a thousand times more pre- 
cious than these — gems that will become brighter as these decav — is in 



12 



the same degree more desirable. I mean the reputation of those distin- 
guished for benevolence or eminent public services. While, therefore, 
we are preserving specimens of minerals, and curious things, let us pre- 
serve a history of specimens of human excellence. The name of one 
man who signed the Declaration of Independence, is worth more than 
all the old muskets, drums, bones of war-lnrses, broken swords, mashed 
bullets, and other paraphernalia of the Revolutionary war, that can be 
found in the Union. These are perishable, that is imperishable; and 
the effectof such history upon the human heart is better than any other. 
In paying the tribute of admiration to genius, and gratitude to virtue, we 
ourselves become wiser and better; instead of leaving our love of coun- 
try to rest upon the cold preference of reason, that slowest and most fee- 
ble of all motives of action, we thus call up the patriotism of the heart in 
aid of the judgment of the head. Our love of country is exalted and 
purified by being mingled with the feelings of gratitude and reverence 
for virtue, and our reverence for virtue is thus warmed and animated, 
and brought home to our hearts by its union with the pride and love of 
our country. Entertaining these views, the undersigned trusts he will 
be pardoned for suggesting that some suitable mode be adopted to pre- 
serve a brief sketch of the history of the early pioneers of the Territory, 
who have rendered, or may render, any essential service to the country. 
For instance, sketches like the following would take but little time and 
labor, and by this means the old pioneers of the country would be held 
in continued recollection : 

" There is a venerable old voyageur, named Montreille, now 92 years 
old, who lives, and has lived, for the last sixty years, within ten miles of 
the Falls of St. Anthony, but has never yet seen the falls — his business 
as a voyageur and trapper never having taken him in that direction from 
his home. He says he has visited nineteen different Indian encamp- 
ments in twenty-four hours — all the encampments being four miles apart 
or more, which would make a march on foot of at least seventy-six miles 
in twenty-four hours, including stoppages. Probably the world has nev- 
er produced a race of more hardy, athletic pedestrians than the voya- 
geurs and trappers who range through the wild regions of North Ameri- 
ca, between the Great Lakes and the Pacific ocean. The unwritten le- 
gends of their experience of border and savage life, and of their perilous 
adventures, would make volumes, if written, of stirring romance. One 
of the duties performed by voyageurs, is the transportation of baggage, 
supplies and canoes, across portages. For this purpose they use the 
port 'age collar, which is a strap passing around the forehead, attached at 
each end to the burthen or pack to be carried, which is also partly sup- 
ported upon the back. In this manner a voyageur often carries (packs) 
a barrel of flour a distance of five or six miles. Squaws carry burdens 
in the same manner. In this way we have often seen them in St. Paul, 
carrying heavy loads of cranberries or of corn, in a sack. The voya- 
geur often finds 'a repose,' that is, something to place his burden upon 
while he rests, every three miles in crossing a portage. This mode of 
transporting was not only common amongst trappers and voyageurs, but 
until lately it was universal amongst the Indians, especially the Chippe- 
was, who, until recently, had few if any horses." And again : " We 
saw in St. Paul, last Friday, Jack Fraser, of whom Capt. Maryatt makes 
mention in his travels in the North-West. Jack is a wiry looking man, 
aged about fifty-two years, the son of a Highland Scotchman by an In- 



§£ 

dian mother — and one of the most intrepid of the Sioux braves. At th» 
war-dance, Jack wears thirty-two eagle plumes, each plume represent- 
ing a scalp taken. He never engages in the Medicine dance, or any of 
the Indian orgies except the war-dance, and he dresses invariably in the 
fashion of the whites, although he has a strongly marked Indian face. — 
He is a nephew of VVakonta, chief of the Red Wing band of Sioux." 

In carrying out this view, the undersigned would avail himseif of the 
present occasion to give a brief sketch of the men who have been prom- 
inent in the Territory thus far, had he the materials at command ; but 
not having these he will only briefly recur to some of the important event.*? 
connected with our history, and to some of the men who have been and 
are prominent. Previous to the admission of Wisconsin as a State, all 
that part ot the Territory east of the Mississippi, (and the Indian title So 
none of that on the West of the river is yet extinguished,) was a part of 
Wisconsin Territory. After the admission of Wisconsin as a State, there 
was a considerable population here without any government. Hon. John 
Catlin, Secretary of the Territory of Wisconsin, came up here, believing 
that this was then the Territory of Wisconsin, and that the duties of 
Governor devolved upon him, (the Governor of the old Territory having 
accepted an office under the new State of Wisconsin,) and issued a proc- 
lamation ordering an election for Delegate to the House of Representa- 
tives of the United States. This election was held October 30th, 1843. 
Henry H. Sibley and Henry M. Rice — two of the most prominent men 
in the Territory — were the candidates. Mr. Sibley was elected. He- 
went on to Washington City, and after some little difficulty, was allowed 
to take his seat, and to attend to the interests of the people of the Terri- 
tory. For further information in regard to the incipient steps taken to 
secure a Territorial organization of Minnesota, see appendix B. 

On the third day of March, 1849, the last day of the session of Con- 
gress, the Territory of Minnesota was organized. On the next day 
Gen. Taylor's Presidential term commenced, and a few days thereafter 
he appointed the following officers for the Territory : Alexander Ramsey, 
Governor, C. K. Smith, Secretary, A. Goodrich, Chief Justice, and B. B. 
Meeker and David Cooper, Associate Justices of the Supreme Court hi 
Minnesota. II. L. Moss, United States District Attorney, and Joshua Li 
Taylor, United States Marshal. Mr. Taylor declined the appointment, 
and Col. A. M. Mitchell was appointed Marshal. Gov. Ramsey arri- 
ved here soon after his appointment, the other officers shortly after, and 
on the first day of June, 1849, the Governor proclaimed the organization 
of the Territorial Government. He also ordered an election of mem- 
bers of the Legislative Assembly, and a delegate to Congress. Mr. Sib- 
ley was elected to Congress without opposition. For a list of the mem- 
bers of the first Legislative Assembly and its officers, and of the second 
Legislative Assembly and its officers, together with a list of Territorial 
and county officers, we refer to Appendix C. 

An election was held in .November of that year, (1849) for county 
officers created by the Assembly, which had just adjourned, but the next 
regular election for all officers, including a delegate to Congress, wa* 
held on the first Monday of September, 1850. This was by far the most 
exciting election ever held in the Territory; Col. A. M. Mitchell and 
Hon. Henry II. Sibley, were the candidates for Congress — It was th* 
contest between these gentlemen which created all the excitement — Col. 
Mitchell avowed himself a whig, Mr. Sibley took the neutral positier, iu. 



14 



-politics — Mr. Sibley was elected. Since the appointment of Territorial 
officers by the President, he has removed two Indian Agents in the Ter- 
ritory, and appointed others; Major Murphy in 1349, and Nathaniel 
M'Lean appointed in his stead — recently Gen. J. E. Fletcher removed 
and A. W. Fridley appointed in his stead; so that the Indian Agencies 
in the Territory consist of Nathaniel M'Lean, agent of the Sioux Indi- 
ans; compensation $750, located at Fort Snelling, disburses yearly to 
the Indians the sum of $33,750 in money and goods. 

A. W. Fridley, agent of the Winnebago Indians, located near Long 
Prairie, at the Winnebago Agency. Salary $1500. Pays out to the 
Indians upwards of $100,000 yearly, in money and goods. 

J. S. Watrous, agent of the Chippewa Indians, located at Sandy Lake ; 
salary $750 ; disburses to the Indians the sum of about $6*4.000 in 
money and goods yearly. For further information on this subject see 
Appendix I). 

There is but one Land Office in the Territory, which is at Stillwater, 
and of which Major A. Van Vorhes is Register, and N. G. Wilcox, 
Receiver. 

The first and only public sale of lands which are comprised within 
the present limits of Minnesota, was made at the land office in St. Croix 
village, Wisconsin, on the 14th day of August, 1843. At that time 
twenty-seven townships and fractional townships of land were exposed 
to sale, containing an aggregate of 436,737 acres. The sales at the 
time amounted to 3,326 acres, at the minimum price of $1,25 per acre. 
Sixteen other townships and fractional townships have also been survey- 
ed, and the plats placed on file in the land office at Stillwater; but these 
lands not ha\ ing been offered at public sale, though open to pre-emption , | 
are not subject to private entry. These townships embrace an aggre- 
gate of 239,380 acres, and comprise some of the finest farming lands. 
between the St. Croix and Mississippi rivers. 

We have nine counties in the Territory, to wit: Washington, Ramsey. 
Benton, Itasca, Wabasha, Dakota, Wahnahto, Mahkahta and Pembina. 

** Returns have been received at the office of the Territorial Auditor, 
of property assessed in the counties of Ramsey, Washington, Wabashaw, 
Dakota and Wahnahta. From the other counties no returns have 
been made. In the counties returned, the total assessed value ofpn> 
pertv, is as follows: 

"Ramsey County $477,334 00 

Washington County - - - - 223,869 48 

Wabashaw County ..... 33,208 00 

Dakota County ....... 31.020 00 

Wahnahta County ..... 36,015 00 



Total $805,417 48 

Having, thus briefly alluded to the Government and public men of 
Minnesota, the Territory itself next claims attention. In reading the 
annals of the West and Legends of the W est, we find but little " save 
what pertains to feats of broil and battle." The tomahawk and scalp^ 
ing knife, scalps and blood, murdered babes, and supplicating mothers 
flit before the imagination, till the horror they inspire is changed into 
pity, by fancying, 

" The hand that slew, till it could slay no more, 
Was glued to the sword hilt, with Indian gore.' 1 
But now the whole scene is changed; peace smiles all over the land, 



15 



blushing now and then at the marks of blood and strife, still visible, but on- 
ly to smile more sweetly when a little time shall erase them all. And let us 
rejoice in the change that has come over us; let the horrors of the past be 
remembered only, to be contrasted with the delights of the future. Let 
genius and skill, public spirit and enterprise, the church and the school 
house, virtue and industry, the axe and the plough, the engine and the 
jackplanc, write the future history of the west, and let the historian have 
only the pleasing duty to perform, of recording their works. It is for the 
future to improve, not to destroy. Minnesota has shown much wisdom 
in the commencement of her career, and may that wisdom, ripening 
before the light of experience, guide her through all future time. Taking 
no part in the petty political squabbles, and sectional prejudices which 
agitate many of the States of the Union, she has at once turned her at- 
tention to the improvement of herself; an example that some of the States 
would do well to follow. Neither has she adopted any of the exploded 
theories of ancient times. 'Tis not her purpose to follow the history of 
barbarous days gone by, but to make a history of her own; she believes 
in the progress of the present age, and practises her belief — she places a 
higher estimate on the Engineer's report of a rail road company, than on 
the theories of Smith or the metaphysics of Say; she takes things as she 
sees them not as she hears of them, and " seeing the world active with 
life, cities springing, as by the touch of the enchanter's wand, into exist- 
ence, manufactories dashing every river into foam, steam power hurling 
men thirty miles an hour, from one end of the continent to the other, and 
the very lightnings of heaven harnessed down and made to work like a 
common dray horse;" these things she sees others have done, and these 
things she determines to do. Still in the second year of her existence 
she has already done wonders. Her territory is dotted with thriving 
towns and villages, and fruitful farms. St. Paul, the present Capital of 
the Territory, with fifteen hundred inhabitants, has more than doubled 
its population, buildings and wealth, within the last seven months. 

St. Anthony with her population of one thousand, has progressed with 
equal rapidity. This town is situated at the Falls of St. Anthony. The 
Falls descend seventeen feet on one side of the river, and eighteen and 
a half on the other. About a mile above there is a sudden bend in tha 
river, and near a half a-mile from this point commence the rapids from 
whence to the precipice there is a fall of twenty-eight feet, making a 
total fall of forty-five teet. 

The river is divided by two islands which lie near the east shore, at 
the head of one of which the mill of F. Steele & Co., stands. In a north- 
east direction is an extensive and beautiful prairie extending for soma 
miles north and south, and skirted by hills on all sides. Among these 
hills (or mounds) are a number of beautiful Lakes fed by springs, form- 
ing a lovely contrast to the hills which surround them. 

The country around the Falls abounds in limestone rock which forms- 
the basis of nearly all bluffs and mounds in this vicinity. The water 
is highly impregnated with lime and slightly with iron. 

The Rev. Albert Barnes, in a sermon preached in 1849, uses this, 
language in relation to the Falls: 

" 1 visited the Falls of St. Anthony. I know not how other men feel 
when standing there, nor how men will feel a century hence, when stand- 
ing there — then, not in the West, but almost in the centre of our great 
nation. Cut when 1 stood there and reflected on the distance between. 



16 



5 that 'and the place of my birth and my home; on the prairies over which 
! 1 had passed; and the stream — the " Father of Rivers " — up which 1 
had sailed some five hundred miles, into a new and unsettled land — 
where the children of the forest still live and roam — 1 had views of the 
greatness of my country, such as I have never had in the crowded capi- 
tals and the smiling villages of the East. Far in the distance did they 
then seem to be; and there came over the soul the idea of greatness, and 
vastness, which no figures, no description, had ever conveyed to my 
mind. To an inexperienced traveller, too, how strange is the appear- 
ance of all that land ! Those boundless prairies seem as if they had 
been cleared by the patient labor of another race of men, removing all 
the forests, and roots, and stumps and brambles, and smoothing them down 
as if with mighty rollers, and sowing them with grass and flowers; a race 
which then passed away, having built no houses of their own, and made 
no fences, and set out no trees, and established no landmarks, to lay the 
foundation of any future claim. The mounds which you here and there 
see, look, indeed, as if a portion of them had died and had been buried 
there; but those mounds and those boundless fields had been forsaken 
together. You ascend the Mississippi amidst scenery unsurpassed in 
beauty probably in the world. You see the waters making their way 
along an interval of from two to four miles in width — between bluffs of 
from 100 to 500 feet in height. Now the river makes its way along the 
eastern range of bluffs, and now the western.-] and now in the centre, 
and now it divides itself into numerous channels, forming thousands of 
beautiful islands, covered with long grass, ready for the scythe of the 
mower. Those bluffs, rounded with taste and skill, such as could be im- 
itated by no art of man, and set out with trees here and there, gracefully 
arranged like orchards, seem to have been sown with grain to the sum- 
mit, and are clothed with beautiful green. You look out instinctively 
for the house and barn ; for flocks and herds ; for men, and women and 
children ; but they are not there. A race that is gone seems to have cul- 
tivated those fields, and then to have silently disappeared — leaving them 
for the first man that should come from the older parts of our own coun- 
try, or from foreign lands, to take possession of them. It is only by a 
process of reflection that you are convinced that it is not so. But it is 
not the work of man. It is God who has done it, when there was no 
man there, save the wandering savage, alike ignorant and unconcern- 
ed as to the design of the great processes in the land where he roamed ; 
God who did all this, that he might prepare it for the abode of a civiliz- 
ed and christian people." 

But to come back again to the towns : Stillwater has a population! o£ 
eight hundred inhabitants, and is steadily increasing in permanent 
wealth and population. Mendota is a place of much trade, and Point 
Douglass and Sauk Rapids, Watab, Itasca, and Long Prairb, have-, 
sprung into note within the last few months; and ere this Society has 
another annual meeting, will be prominent villages. Pembina, too, is at- 
tracting much attention, and promising rapid growth; already, has an. 
office of customs been established there, and our townsman, C. Cavileer, 
Esq., appointed to take charge of it. Wabashaw is growing in impor- 
tance, and bids fair to be a place of considerable business, owing, in 
part, to its being below Lake Pepin, and open to navigation five or aiat 
weeks in the year longer than the towns above the Lake.. 



17 



Manufactories oflumber make a large item in the wealth and improve- 
ment of Minnesota. At the Falls of St. Anthony four saws are constant- 
ly running, and if there were twice the number, there would be a de- 
mand for all the lumber they could saw. On the St. Croix there are 
several mills in operation. At Point Douglass, an enterprising gentle- 
man from Cincinnati, Ohio. VVm. Woodruff, Esq., has erected a mill; 
and last, though not least, two steam saw mills and one grist mill, com- 
menced but a few weeks ago, are now in full operation in this town — 
one in the upper part of the town, erected by Messrs. VVasson & Barnes; 
the grist mill north and adjoining the town, and the other saw mill in the 
lower portion of the town, which is a fine establishment, and highly credit- 
able to the gentleman under whose superintendency it was erected, VVm. 
B. Dodd. from New York. 

Schools grow up here as if they were the natural growth of the soil; 
all the principal villages have their schools, and here, in St. Paul, there 
are several with from thirty to eighty scholars each; and churches, too, 
.spring up with a rapidity well calculated to create the suspicion that the 
days of miracles have not gone by, and that some fortunate minister 
of Christ has found the long-lost lamp of Aliadin. Five denominations 
of Christians are laboring successfully; and three fine churches, one of 
which would be an ornament to any of the large cities of the Union, have 
been erected within the lastfevv months. All five are filled every Sun- 
day with attentive listeners. For a detailed account of towns, schools, 
churches, &c, see appendix E. 

To public roads and the improvement of the highways, the people of 
Minnesota are also alive. Already have they obtained an appropriation 
from the general government of $40,000, to survey and make roads in the 
Territory. And the work — the surveyor's portion of it — is now in pro- 
gress, and they are petitioning, with hopes of success, for a donation of 
lard to extend a telegraphic line to this place, so as to bring Minnesota 
in immediate communication with the Eastern cities, and indeed with all 
parts of the Union 

At the session of Congress of 1848-9, appropriations were made to 
Minnesota — 

To erect suitable Public Buildings, - - - $20,000 
For a Librarv, - -- .- -- 5 000 

Salary of Officers, 9.000 

Legislative expenses, ------ 13,700 

Contingent expenses, ----- 350 

At session of 1849-50— 

For Penitentiary, 20.000 

Construction of Roads. 40 000 

Sahry of Territorial Officers, ----- 9 700 
Contingent fund, ------ J 000 

Legislative Assembly, 24 000 

F'xpenses of treating with Indians, - - - 10,000 
To supply deficiences in the appropriation 

for the year ending 30th June, I860, - - 13 504 tft 

Aggregate. $1GG 254 8it 

This sum (ftl66,254 83) does not include the expenses of the Judi- 
ciary, except the salarv of the Judges, nor the salaries of the Indira 
2 



18 



.Agents, nor the annuities paid to the Indians, which bring large 3ums of 
money into the Territory. 

Minnesota Territory is within the following limits, to wit: 

** Beginning in the {Mississippi river, at the point where the line of for- 
ty-three decrees and thirty nun tiles of north latitude crosses the same, 
thence running due west on said line, which is the northern boundary of 
the State of Iowa, to the north-west corner of the said State of Iowa, 
thence southerly along the western boundary of said State to the point 
where said boundary strikes the Missouri river, thence up the middle of 
the main channel of the Missouri river, to the mouth of White Earth 
i:iver, thence up the middle of the main channel of the White Earth river 
to the boundary line between the possessions of the United States and 
Great Britain ; thence east and south of east along the boundary line be- 
tween the possessions of the United States and Great Britain, to Lake Su- 
perior; thence in a. straight line to the northernmost point of the State 
of Wisconsin in Lake Superior ; thence along the western boundary line 
of said State of Wisconsin, to the Mississippi river; thence down the 
main channel of said river to the place of beginning." 

In the appendix will be found papers from Dr. Potts of this town, and. 
Dr. Rigdon, of Hamilton, Ohio, showing the miasmatic influences and 
effects in the different sections of the country. 

Our Territory, however, is proverbially healthy ; and although the ex- 
tremes of heat near the equator and the extremes of cold near the poles-, 
it is well known that the temperature of different places is not uniformly 
hot or cold, according to the several latitudes. The temperature of 
places is greatly affected by position, as they are high or low ; also by 
prevailing winds. 

So in regard to Minnesota climate ; it is not to be judged of by latitude,, 
wholly. The winters are much more mild and pleasant than any such 
criterion would seem to indicate. Many ot the singular processes of na- 
ture, which meteorology unfolds, are intimately connected with our be- 
ing and happiness, while others, on account of their beauty and sublim- 
ity, fill the mind with admiration and awe. We have frequent and the 
most sublime appearances of the Aurora Borealis in this part of the coun- 
try, which has in ail ages been an object of wonder and mystery, and 
still continues so. The cause of this brilliant phenomenon is yet involv- 
ed in obscurity, notwithstanding many valuable facts have been develop- 
ed by the investigations of science in regard to it. i have collected some 
facts in regard to the meteorology of Minnesota, which will be found in, 
the appendix. 

In relation to the adaptation of Minnesotasoil to agi-ieultural purposes, 
1 quote from the message of Gov. Ramsey : " Experience has demon- 
strated that beyond all doubt we can produce from the soil in its natural 
state, in every part of Min nesota in. which the test has been made, wheat, 
oats, potatoes and corn, in quality equal to that produced in any of the- 
States of the Union, and m quantity that astonishes even those who have 
been familiar with the most fertile bottom lands of Indiana and Illinois. 
It has happened to me, during the last summer, to witness upon the banks 
of northern lakes, under the forty-eighth degree of latitude, fields of corn 
and wheat in a state of most luxuriant growth ; and from the settlements 
of the Red river of the North, I have received specimens of spring wheat 
equal in weight to any winter wheat raised in the Middle States of the 
Union. With these results, in connexion with the incomparable sain,-- 



19 

brity of our climate, the remunerating prices of produce, the certainty 
and proximity of a market, the abundance and cheapness of land, and 
the hidden treasures of its unworn fertility, who can doubt that the iu- 
ture has in store for us a career of manly vigor, and a succession of pros- 
perous days? Our soil teems with vegetative power, and is equally 
adapted to the growth of wheat, the raising of cattle, and the production, 
of wool." 

As a matter connected with the objects of our Society, I suggest that 
measures be taken for the collection of the daguerreotypes of the mem- 
bers of the Territorial Legislature ; and it seems to me that the fea- 
tures of the most distinguished of the Indian chiefs, might also be pre- 
served in this way. We have residing with us Dr. Win. II. Jarvis, an 
artist who is capable of deliniating the features in daguerreotypes in a 
masterly manner, so that the matter need only to be determined upon to 
be accomplished. And in connexion with this subject it is suggested, 
that individuals capable be designated to collect and forward informa- 
tion in regard to the caves, mounds, fortifications, ancient earth works, 
&c, and that W. W. Warren, Esq., be requested to write out and pre- 
sent to the Society, sketches of the Chippewa braves of the former and 
present times, and legends of the tribe. That the Rev. Mr. Gear, the 
Messrs. Pond, Mr. Preseott, of Fort Snelling, and Dr. Williamson, be 
asked to write legends of the Dakotas, sketches of the brave3. customs of 
the nation and of their dialect. That Rev. Mr. Raveaux andRev. E.D. 
Neill be requested to present to the Society a history of the Catholic mis- 
sions and Protestant missions in Minnesota. 

Public attention has also been called to the propriety of establishing 
the Western Armory at St. Paul, and a Military Academy at Fort Snel- 
ling. The reasons for the latter institution a?t that point, are fully set- 
forth in the following letter; 
To the H on. Thos. Corwin, of Ohio : 

Sir : — Nature and education have given you an unlimited command 
over the most beautiful figures of speech. Your talents, eloquence, and 
horiesty have placed you prominently before the American people as one 
of her most gifted and able statesmen. You occupy an elevated posi- 
tion in the affections of your countrymen, and in the councils of the na- 
tion. Your bold, truthful, and independent course in the Senate of the 
United States, is admired and approbated by many, very many of your 
fellow-citizens. Your position would seem to give authority to address 
you on any subject, which may be considered in anywise interesting to. 
the public. 

i therefore, without any further apology, proceed to remark, that peace* 
is at all times desirable, war always to be deprecated; yet it seems a 
law inherent in human nature, that we cannot always have the one, ov 
avoid the other. In all the proceeding ages, nations have occasionally- 
been involved in sanguinary strife. The future promises no well ground- 
ed hope of an exemption from this dire calamity. The Gospel, and all: 
well-meant and philanthropic efforts of peace associations, will fail to 
avert it. No human means seem adequate to secure the blessings of 
perpetual peace. It is true, that wars are not so frequent now as in the 
earlier ages. A reference to the chronicles of mankind would lead 
one to believe, that the business of the human race, in its earlier ases, 
was mainly to kill and be killed. In the first wars, the only arms used 
wars pcrb?.ps those given by nature; in tho progress of ages, other arm*. 



20 

were invented, and new means of injury and destruction used. As the 
implements of war increased, in the same ratio wars decreased; and 
were it possible to have the art of war so improved, that death would be 
the certain portion of all who engaged in battle, it would, in our opinion, 
put a period to wars. While fists and clubs were the only arms employ- 
ed, men rushed into hostilities with much less hesitation than they now 
do. 

Hence we conclude, that the more destructive wars become, the less 
likely will they be engaged in. This being true, a thorough military 
education, given to any people, is likely to prove a very effectual means 
of preserving peace. When a nation is known to be thus prepared, the 
belligerent powers are more likely to respect her rights, and to use every 
means of avoiding a conflict. It is, however, wholly impossible, that alt 
should be thoroughly educated in military science. Nor is it necessary ; 
it is quite sufficient that a number large enough to guide and direct all 
military operations, should have received such a training. According- 
ly, in the earliest history of our Republic, it became our policy to estab- 
lish a military academy. We had passed through the war of our inde- 
pendence, and in that war, the want of men who had received a military 
education was apparent; and the advantages of it were strongly evi- 
denced by the efficient aid rendered us by foreigners who came among 
us. It is not easy to estimate the benefits which resulted from the military 
skill of Steuben, and the discipline which he established at Valley Forge, 
during the time our army was in winter quarters at that place. General 
Washington felt the advantages of military science so strongly, that in. 
his eighth annual message he recommended the establishment of a mili- 
tary academy in these words : 

'* In proportion as the observance of pacific measures might exempt a 
nation from practising the rules of the military art, ought to be its care in 
preserving and transmitting by proper establishments, the knowledge of 
that art. Whatever argument may be drawn from particular examples, 
superficially viewed, a thorough examination ol the subject will evince, 
that ihe art of war is at once comprehensive and complicated; that it 
demands much previous sludy, and that the possession of it in its most im- 
proved and perfect state, is always of great moment to the security of a 
nation. This, therefore, ought to be a serious care of every government ; 
and for this purpose an academy where a regular course of instruction 
is given, is an obvious expedient which different nations have success- 
fully employed." 

Five years after this recommendation. Congress, bylaw, established a 
military academy at West Point, where it still remains. This was by the 
" Act fixing the military peace establishment of the United States." ap- 
proved March 16, 1802. However, "An act to authorize the purchase 
of a tract ofland for the use of the United States," approved July 5, 1790, 
was the first law on the subject of West Point. But the academy did 
not do much for a number of years. It lingered along until the war of 
1812. which taught its advantages anew. Soon after that war, new en- 
ergy was givfcn to it; and it went into active and efficient operation. — 
Many acts of Congress have, from time to time, been passed, regulating 
this institution. Formidable opposition has arisen at various periods. — 
Jt has, however, at length won its way to general favor as an institutioa 
of great benefit. If there were any lingering doubts remaining, the late 
war with Mexico must have dissipated them. The incalculable services 



21 



rendered by those who had been educated at West Point, in that strug- 
gle must satisfy every one of its vast utility. Whatever may be the opin- 
ions of the bravery of our soldiery who were engaged in Mexico, it can- 
not be denied, that our long li:-:t of brilliant military achievements is 
mainly owing to the science taught at West Point. It is no part of the 
•object of the writer to labor an eulogy upon our military Academy. The 
names of Ilinggold, Swift, McKee, and Clay, who fell in the Mexican 
war. together with a host of others who escaped their fate, attest the ad- 
vantages of the institution ; and as long as the brilliant victories obtain- 
ed by our arms in Mexico, from Palo Alto to the city of Mexico, live on 
the pages of history, that long will the vast utility of the military science 
taught at West Point be remembered. 

Hut it is not alone in the military art that " West Pointers" have dis- 
tinguished themselves. In every department of life — in the tented field 
— at the bar — in our seminaries — in authorship — aye, even in the pulpit, 
West Point can boast its stars. No institution in our country gives u 
more practical and useful education than West Point. 

Taking it for granted, that all will admit its utility, and that its benefits 
and favors should be well and equally diffused throughout our country, 
we would inquire, Does the institution at West Point answer our purpos- 
es in its present condition ? Ls that place sufficient to educate all whom 
it is desirable should be thoroughly instructed in those solid branches 
which are essential to a good military education? Does it satisfy the 
wants and avoid the prejudices, which grow with the growth and strength- 
en with the strength of the country ? By an act of Congress, approved 
July 7th, 1838, the number of Cadets is limited to two hundred and fifty. 
The rule of admission is, that one Cadet shall be admitted from each 
Congressional district. Since this rule was established, the ratio of rep- 
resentation has been increased from 47,700 to 73,000. Thus the num- 
ber of Cadets does not increase in proportion as our population increas- 
es. The population of the United States was then about 13,000,000, It 
is now supposed to be over 20,000.000. Our borders are continually 
and rapidly extending; and ifthe spirit of war remains as rife as in for- 
mer times, the danger of being involved in hostilities will greatly increase; 
and we will consequently require a greater number of men educated in 
military science. 

If this reasoning be correct, our circumstances demand an increase in 
the number of Cadets; and ifthe number be enlarged, the establishment 
at West Point is wholly inadequate to their accommodation. In fact, it 
is not sufficient, under its present organization, to satisfy the country, 
nor accommodate the present number authorized by law. Although the 
number which may be admitted is two hundred and. fifty, yet, from some 
unaccountable reason, the ordinary number is about two hundred. For 
various reasons, many of them are dismissed; doubtless most of them 
for good cause, and perhaps all. The number of graduates since its or- 
ganization, we cannot state. We have no data at hand to enable us to 
determine with certainty ; but it does not exceed twelve hundred, which 
is twenty-five graduates for each year since the organization of the in- 
stitution. Quite a small number indeed, in comparison with our present 
immense population of 20,000,000. As before stated we believe the 
number of Cadets should be increased so as to be commensurate to the 
increased population and wants of our growing and widely extended 
country. This will require a similar or auxilliary institution elsewhere. 



22 



The new institution should be in the West, to meet the wants of the 
country. It is but just, that the convenience and interest of the great 
West should be accommodated in this matter. Millions of money from 
the public Treasury are disbursed in the East, while to the West it is 
dealt out with a parsimonious hand. It is justice to the West to have 
some public favor in this way. She has long complained of injustice in 
this matter; and the time is fast approaching, when she can enforce, by 
her numerical representation, this equitable demand. 

But it is not in this view that we urge the erection of a military acade- 
my in the West. It is mainly in regard to the necessity and conve- 
nience ot the matter that it is urged. If it be a good thing, its benefits 
should be equally diffused. In looking for a particular location for this 
auxiliary institution, there are three important considerations which 
should influence its locality. The health of Cadets being a matter of 
paramount importance, that should be the first consideration. The sec- 
ond should be the convenience of access to the place; and the third 
should be the economy of the matter in a pecuniary point of view. The 
place which combines these advantages in the greatest degree should be 
selected. 

In casting about, we can name no place which seems to combine them 
in so great a degree as Fort Snelling. "Viewing all things, this strikes 
us as being the very place for such an establishment. It is more like 
West Point for scenery, health, and many other particulars, than any 
place on the American continent. Its buildings, arrangement, and 
whole conformation, are very similar. It will so impress any person up- 
on inspection. It is a military post, established in 1819. The march 
of our population westward, now renders it of little use for military de- 
fence. At all events, it could be sufficiently manned by Cadets for all 
practicable purposes; and the expense of keeping it up would not be 
more than the present expenditure, so that the government would not 
have to lay out one additional cent by converting it into an academy. 

It will be seen, however, by the act making appropriations for the sup- 
port of the military academy for the year ending the 30th of June, 1850, 
that the sum of $171,394 61 was appropriated, which is taken as the av- 
erage sum appropriated yearly since the organization, to keep up and 
sustain the institution. It has been in existance forty-seven years, which 
multiplied by the appropriation of $171,394 61 will produce the sum of 
eight millions fifty-five thousand five hundred and eighteen dollars, 
which, divided by twelve hundred, will leave an expenditure for each 
student of six thousand seven hundred and thirteen dollars. We state 
the facts without note or comment. 

Fort Snelling is in a place which is, beyond all question, one of the 
most healthy in the United States ; in fact, it is proverbially healthy. It 
is useless to extend our remarks on this point, for it can have no rival 
as to health. 

Next of its convenience. It is situated on the Mississippi river, at the 
confluence of that and the Minnesota or, St. Peters river — easily arrived 
at by means of steamboats at all times, except when blocked up by ice. 
By reference to the map it will be seen that Cadets from Texas, Louis- 
iana, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Tennessee, Kentucky, Missouri, 
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Iowa, will find it of 
easy access — much more so than West Point. These and the States 
that will spring up in the North- West, will, before many years, have one 



23 

half of t h a population of the United States. Thus it is seen that Fort 
Snelling commends itself to favor from considerations of convenience. 

We come lastly to notice it with reference to public ec jnomy. The 
fort is large and capacious, vveH built with stone, and has ample room, ad- 
mirably adapted fpr the accommodation of three hundred Cadets. It has 
all l-he necessary buildings, out buildings, &c, and appears as if built pur- 
posely for an academy, so that no expense need be incurred for buildings. 
Connected with it is a military reservation of twelve miles square; that 
part of the reservation immediately surrounding the fort is well suited for 
parade ground. It is understood that the government has authorized the 
preliminaries to a treaty with the Sioux Indians, which, it is presumed, 
will be consummated ere long. Thus we shall acquire atract of country 
extending from the Fort, west, between the Mississippi and Minnesota riv- 
ers ; s) that any number of acres may be appropriated and set apart for 
the use of the academy. Perhaps no other suitable place in the country 
could be selected, which would have this and so many other arguments 
in its favor, but Fort Snelling. These facts show, that on the store of 
economy it is a" very desirable location for a military academy; and 
thus we find it combines all the advantages which should commend a 
place as a site for such an institution. 

The scenery around this point is by no means inferior to that at West 
Point. The place is, as before stated, at the confluence of the Minnesota 
and Mississippi rivers — the former, a beautiful stream which winds its way 
from the south- west. until it unites with the Mississippi, which comes from 
the north-west. On the point, upon an elevated piece of ground, stands 
Fort Snelling — a place slreng by nature, and rendered almost impreg- 
nable by the military works. It luoks as though the dogs of war might 
bark at it until they split their brazen throats, and it would laugh in scorn 
at the power of battle. Far away to the north-west stretches a beautiful 
plain, smooth as a meadow. Turn your eyes around, and for beauty 
and sublimity of scenery — from the bold precipice to the smooth, beau- 
tiful lawn — clumps of trees — oak openings, which look like an old orch- 
ard — in short, all that can please and charm the eye is here presented. 
South of the Fort, in full view, is Mendota, the. station of the American 
Fur Company. Back of this the country rises in beautiful grandeur, and 
spreads to the eye a delightful landscape. Whatever advantages which 
pleasing scenery, bold or beautiful, may have upon the mind, is here to 
be realized. Taking it all in all. it seems that Congress should look to 
this matter, and proceed to organize at this place, at an early day, a mil- 
itary academy, on principles similar to West Point. In every point of 
view, the establishment of an auxiliary institution seems the best polic} r , 
and Fort Snelling the place. S. 

St. Paul, Minnesota Territory, Sept. 1st, 1849. 

A discourse delivered on the 26th December, 1850, the first Thanks- 
giving day appointed by the Governor of the Territory, after speaking of 
the hardships of the early pioneers of the other portions of the United 
States, says: " No such distresses have been felt by us, the early col- 
onists of Minnesota. Uninterrupted general health has prevailed through- 
out the land. The country so far has been as near an El Dorado as 
any ever found beneath the skies, and its fountains are as renovating as 
any that are not fountains of eternal life. While the cities in the valley 
below were filled with gloom by the reappearance of that mysterious 
scourge, the Asiatic cholera; while the ploughs were left to rust in the 



24 



field, and the crops to remain unharvestcd. we were permitted to pursue 
our callings with alacrity. Not an authenticated case of the death of one 
of our citizens by that epidemic can be; discovered." 

" In addition to general health, we have been free from the hardships of 
emigrant life, and have possessed all the necessaries ofexistence. Though 
not far from a thousand miles by the usual route of travel north west of 
the city of St. Louis, and though there are no roads to our settlements from 
Lake Superior, or the capitols of Wisconsin and Iowa, our Territory has 
been easy of access. Instead of bciru weeks upon the way, toiling with 
oxen through swamps and pathless forests, camping out by night with 
scarcely any covering but the firmament studded with stars, and with no 
lamps but those hung in heaven, our emigrants have been speedily trans- 
ported hither in noble and convenient steamers, and with but little ex- 
penditure of their means, and with no bitter thought that they had been 
obliged to leave some of their family upon the boundless prairies, a feast 
tor the wolf and the bear. Nor have any of our inhabitants been desti- 
tute of the necessaries of life. ' Tradition declares that at one time the 
colonists of Plymouth were reduced to a pint of corn, which being parch- 
ed and distribute i . gave to each individual only five kernels.' The new 
settler in this Territory has always had an abundance. The farmer has 
added to his gains; and it especially becomes him to observe this day, 
and with gratitude to praise the God of the harvest. It also becomes us 
to give thanks to-day, that we are at peace with the Indian tribes within 
our borders." 

And further on in the same discourse, the reverend gentleman says : 
" The poetesses of New England have sung our praises. Authors have 
called us the * New England of the West,' and her inhabitants would 
love to see us adopt their social and ecclesiastical forms. The public 
presses of the Middle and Southern States have viewed us with a kindly 
eye. No scenes like these enacted at Alton, Nauvoo or Vicksburg, 
have been perpetrated here. To go to Texas was once synonomous 
with fleeing from justice; on the contrary, to emigrate to Minnesota im- 
plies a disposition to be active, intelligent, industrious and virtuous, and 
there has never been any stigma attached to the act. 

Though this reputation we enjoy is to a great degree undeserved, let 
us see that we do not lose it. If the words are true — 

" He that filches from me my good name, 
Robs me of that whioh not enriches him, 
And makes me poor indeed," 

it is proper for Minnesota to frown upon all who by their conduct disgust 
strangers and residents. They are her robbers. They impoverish the 
Territory, without enriching themselves. 

Finally, we should give thanks to God for our fair prospects. It was 
a common belief of the early explorers, that one of the great thorough- 
fares of nations from Europe to China would pass through this district of 
America. Hennepin, La Salle and Carver, were confident that there 
would be a short route to the Pacific by the head waters of the Upper 
Mississippi. The latter looked forward to the time when a communica- 
tion would be opened between New York and the remotest West. — 
View the map of the United States, and you will readily perceive that 
we occupy the geographical centre, and that St. Paul is in the same lat- 
itude as Oregon City. Is there not a prospect that in a half century, the- 



25 



Indian lodges that now surround us will be far removed ; that the shores 
of Lake Pepin will be the abode of many a maiden as constant to her 
first love as Winona, and in addition strengthened and enobled by the 
religion of Christ ; that the steam engine, either iw boat or car, will movo 
from Montreal to the Rapids of St. Mary, and stop at the roaring waters 
of St. Anthony; that Traverse des Sioux will be the capital of a State, 
and a depot like Damascus, or Petra, or Babylon in olden time, for the 
productions of the South, the furs of the North, the manufactures of the 
East, and the gold, or what is better, the golden grains of the West; that 
the gates of the Rocky Mountains will be thrown open, and the locomotive 
groaning and rumbling from Oregon City, will stop here with its heavy- 
train ol p )rhaps, Asiatic pro luce, on its way to Dubuque, or some other 
point; that the mission stations of Remnica and Lac-qui-Parle will bo 
supplanted by the white school house, the church spire, and higher sem- 
inary of learning ; Is it not true even now that — 

11 Behin 1 the scared squaw's birch canoe, 

The steamer smokes and raves, 
And city lots are staked for sale 

Above old Indian graves." 

Do we not 

" hear the tread of pioneers 

Of nations yet to be; 
The first low wash of waves where soon 

Shall roll a human sea? 

The rudiments of empire hero 

Are plastic yet and warm? 
The chaos ol* a mighty world 

Is rounuing into form! 

Each rude and jostling fragment soon 

Its fitting place shall find — 
The raw material of a State, 

Its muscle and its mind." 

Thus we see all the elements of social and physical improvement com- 
bined and in lively action among us. Religion delights to spread her 
mantle over the monuments and institutions of human industry. In- 
dustry delights to kneel at the Altar of God and give thanks for His good- 
ness, and pray for a bountiful reward of its toil: and liberty, too, partic- 
ipates in these delights; for liberty, industry and religion are natural 
allies, and love of law and order the impulse of them all — cherishing all 
these, may we not therefore invoke the advent of these blessings? 

A list of letters, which it is thought proper to publish, from members 
and contributors, will be found in Appendix A. These letters together 
with cotributions not already noticed, will now be briefly attended to. 

First, "The Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley," present- 
ed by the Smithsonian Institution. This is a very valuable work, and the 
authors are entitled to the gratitude of the whole nation for their care arjd 
pains in preparing it. In the preface it is stated "that the fact of the ex- 
istence, within the valley of the Mississippi river and its tributaries, of 
many ancient monuments of human labor and skill, seems to have es- 
caped the notice of the adventurers who first made known to the world 
the extent and fertility of that vast region." The authors then go on to 
state who have made known to the world thess " Ancient monuments," — 




among these are Carver, in 1776, and Ilearte and others in 1791. Their 
accounts however, served scarcely to make known the existence of these 
remains, and failed to convey any clear idea of their extent or charac- 
ter. But Harris in his tour into the territory north-west of the Ohio, no- 
tices at considerable length the ancient remains at Marietta, on the Ohio 
'river; and Breckenridge, one of the " most accurate" of the early ex- 
plorers of the west, in his " view of Louisiana," presented accounts of 
ancient remains at various points. Bishop Pvladison, of Virginia, Bartrarn 
in his animated journal of travels in Florida, De Witt Clinton, in an ad- 
dress before the Literary and Philosophic society of New York, Mc- 
Cauley in his history of New York, Daniel Drake and Caleb Atwater's 
memoir, are then credited with much valuable information respecting 
these monuments. In addition to these, Lewis, Clark, Major Long, 
Dr. Edwin James, Henry R. Sehoolcraft, Timothy Flint, Hugh William- 
son, Dr. Barton, Rev. Joseph Doddridge, President Jefferson, Dr. Lew- 
is C. Beck, Dr. S. P. Hildrith, Keating, Haywood, Howe. Nutall, 
Latrobe, Rochfaucault, Short, Collins, Dickeson, Brown, Featherston- 
haugh. Professors Gerard Troost, John Locke, and C. G. Forshey, R. C. 
and S. Taylor, Prince Maximilian, iProfessor Rafinesque, Charles Whit* 
tlessv, etcetera, are mentioned as among those who have contributed to 
the stock of'information on the subject. Caleb Atwater is then mention- 
ed as being the first who made an *• attempt towards a general account of 
the ancient monuments of the west," — who deserves the credit of being 
the " Pioneer in this department." The authors then give a brief sketch 
of their researches and proceed to say: " The prosecution of their re- 
searcnes naturally led to an acquaintance and correspondence with 
a large number of gentlemen in various parts of the Union, who felt in- 
terested in them, and who had devoted attention to the same subject. 
They -then say, " First among these, it will not be invidious to name 
James McBride, Esq., of Hamilton, Ohio, whose valuable contributions 
constitute an important feature in the memoir herewith presented." 
Many others are then noticed as having assisted in the work; and then 
the authors conclude the .preface by saying, " The importance of a com- 
plete and speedy examination of the whole field, cannot be over-estima- 
ted. The operations of the elements, the shifting channels of the streams, 
the leveling hand of public improvement, and most efficient of all, the 
slow but constant encroachments of agriculture, are fast destroying 
these monuments of ancient labor, breaking in upon their symmetry and 
obliterating their outlines. Thousands have already disappeared or 
retain but slight and doubtful traces of their former proportions. Such 
an examination is, however, too great an undertaking for private enter- 
prise to attempt. It must be left to local explorers, to learned associa- 
tions, or to the government — and if this memoir shall succeed in 
directing that attention to the subject which it merits, and thereby in 
some manner secure the thorough investigation of these monuments, 
that result will prove an ample recompense for labors, performed in a 
field of absorbing interest, and one which holds out abundant attrac- 
tion to the antiquarian and archaeologist." 

The authors then commence their book by saying, "The ancient 
•monuments of the western United States consist for the most part of 
.elevations and embankments of earth and stone, erected with -great 
ijabor and manifest design. In connection with these, more or less 
Ultimate, are found various minor relics of art, consisting of ornaments 



27 



and implements of many kinds, some of them composed of metal, but 
most of stone." The book is then filled with specimens engraved, with 
descriptions and remarks upon them. It is, however, inexpedient on an 
occasion like this, to dwell particularly on the contents of this hook, and 
it will be dismissed with the remark, that the Indians, unless they have 
wonderfully degenerated, were not the original lords of the soil. The 
works of art presented are immeasurably beyond any thing which the 
North American Indians are known to produce, even at this day, with 
all the suggestions of art and the advantage afforded by steel instruments. 

In his letter, the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, says: " Our 
object in writing, is to solicit in behalf of the Smithsonian Institution, the 
co-operation of the Minnesota Historical Society, in our plans of in- 
creasing and diffusing knowledge among men. There are a number of 
subjects which merit investigation, in which the two institutions may be 
of mutual aid." We are thankful for this courtesy and fully recipro- 
cate it. 

The next contribution which claims attention is, " Notes on the early 
settlement of the North-western Territory, by Jacob Burnet," presented 
by the author. This is an interesting and valuable political history of 
the West — interesting in itself and valuable from the high character of 
the author. It is recommended to the western politician as an accu- 
rate description of the political affairs of the west, from its earliest 
settlement down to the year 1847, and to young men generally, as 
containing many bright examples of integrity, industry and valor, 
elevating their possessors to the highest position in life, in spite of 
poverty and early obscurity, worthy of all imitation. In his letter, 
Judge Burnet says: "I will avail myself of any opportunity that may 
offer, to aid your, society in the accomplishment of its important and 
praiseworthy undertaking." For this kind offer he has our sincere thanks. 

Next, a valuable book is presented bv Miss Marcella Smith, of Hamil- 
ton, Ohio, bearing the title of " Lake Superior, its physical character, 
vegetation and animals, compared with those of other and similar re- 
gions," and is particularly' interesting to us on account of the contiguity 
of the locality. The book gives a very minute and accurate account of 
Lake Superior, the minerals and shells on its banks — the wild animals 
that hover and the vegetables that grow around it, the fish that are in it, 
and lastly a chapter is devoted to the geological relations of the various 
copper deposits of Lake Superior. It is stated that" The general distri- 
bution of the different copper ores in the region of Lake Superior, 
presents some facts which seem to have a direct bearing upon the theory 
of their origin. It is a very remarkable circumstance that the largest 
masses of native copper should occur upon Point Keewenaw, and that 
the non-metallic ores should be diffused at various distances from the 
central region, where the largest masses of native metallic copper occur. 
The various sulphurets and carbonates are found on the northern shore 
and about Lake Huron, in far greater uroportion and over a wider extent, 
than any where nearer th e metallic centre. The black oxide itself, is 
found beyond the limits of the large metallic masses and nearer to them 
than the other ores. I cannot help thinking that this particular distri- 
bution has direct reference to the manner in which these various copper 
ores were diffused in the country where they occur. They seem clearly to 
indicate that the native copper is all plutonic ; that its larger masses were 
thrown up in a melted state, and that from the main fissure through 



28 

which they have found their way, they spread in smaller injections at 
considerable distances, but upon the larger masses in the central focus, 
the surrounding rocks could have but little influence. New chemical 
combinations could hardly be formed between so compact masses, pre- 
senting in comparison with their bulk, a small surface for contact with 
other mineral substances capable of being chemically combined with 
the copper. But where at a distance, the mass was diffused in smaller 
proportions into innumerable minute fissures, and thus presented a com- 
paratively large surface of contact with the surrounding rocks, there the 
most diversified combinations could be formed, and thus the various ores 
appear in this characteristic distribution. The relations which these 
ores bear to the rocks in which they are contained, sustain fully this 
view, and even the circumstance that the black oxide is found in the 
vicinity of the main masses, when the sulphurets and carbonates occur at 
greater distances from them, would show that this ore is the result of 
the oxidation of some portion of the large metallic masses, exposed more 
directly to the influence of oxygen in the process of cooling. Indeed the 
phenomena respecting the distribution of the copper about Lake Superior, 
in all their natural relations, answer so fully to this view, that the whole 
process might easily be re-produced artificially on a small scale; and it ap- 
pears strange that so many doubts can still be expressed respecting the 
origin of the copper about Lake Superior, and that this great feature of the 
distribution of its various ores should have been so totally overlooked." 

" Antiquities of America — the first inhabitants ofCentral America, and 
the discovery of New England by the Northmen, five hundred years 
before Columbus," presented by the Hon. David Cooper, is a pamphlet 
of 32 pages, and contains a great many historical facts, thrown together 
without much arrangement, it is true, yet containing much valuable ma- 
terial for the reflecting mind. Whether it is true that the Northmen 
discovered New England five hundred years before Columbus, is a 
question not to be determined without more reflection and further research 
than the author has bestowed upon the pamphlet. He has only opened 
the field of inquiry and left it for others to cultivate, and it is to be hoped 
some one fond of antiquarian research, will perform this service to the 
public, for the subject is one of much interest to the historic reader, and 
Us proper elucidation is due to the early adventurers to this continent. 

Who they were, and what they did, should be k^own, that the grati- 
tude of the greatest nation upon earth, should be given where it is due. 
We read with admiration the achievements of great military commanders, 
whose deeds are made brilliant by the desolation they spread over rival 
nations; and shall we not applaud those who have opened to view a 
broad region where smiling hope invites successive generations from the 
old world. A Csesar or a Tamerlane conquer but to devastate countries; 
discoverers add new regions of fertility and beauty to those already 
known; and are not the hardy adventurers ploughing in the briny wave 
trying to discover a country, more attractive than the troops of Alexan- 
der, marching with plumes waving in the gentle breeze, and arms glit- 
tering in the sun beam, to conquer the world? Who can tell the benefit 
the former confer on mankind — 

" To count them all demands a thousand tongues, 
A throat of brass and adamantine lungs," 

And without particularizing further, it may be remarked that the contr> 



29 



butions are all more or loss valuable, and the contributors entitled to th* 
thanks of this society; and the letters, too, are many ot them, highly in- 
teresting, but as many of them are herewith published, further special 
notice of them need not be taken. 

Hon. VVm. IT. Forbes, Treasurer of this Society, ha3 presented here- 
with an exhibitof its financial condition, by an inspection of which, it wiM 
be seen that we have not more money than is needed. 



APPENDIX. 



A, 

COWTJSEJSUTIOMS TO THE MINNESOTA IIJSTOISECAE &OC2ET i' . 

Orrin W. Rice, Min. Ter. — A neat Indian saddle. 
H. S. Earbart, Hamilton, Ohio — Various minerals. 
Dr. A.Campbell, " 

Hon. Jacob Burnet, Cincinnati, Ohio — " Burnet's Notes on the settle- 
ment of the North- Western Territory," and a pamphlet in regard to the 
Cincinnati Astronomical Society, containing an oration of the Hon. John 
Quincy Adams, et cetera. 

Joseph Henry, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution — Vol. 1. Smith- 
sonian contributions to knowledge, 44 Ancient Monuments of the Missis- 
sippi Valley, comprising the results of extensive original surveys and 
explorations," and 44 A report on the history of the discovery of 4 Nep- 
tune,' by Benjamin Anthrop Gould, Jr." 

H. G. Kennedy, Washington City — Various Public Documents. 

Hon. Win, 13. Seward, 44 " 44 

Hon. Thos. Corvvin, 44 4 4 44 

Hon. Daniel Webster, 4 4 44 4 4 

Hon. R. C. Schenck, 

Hon. L. D. Campbell, " " " 

Hon. A. Goodrich, " " 4< 

Henry R. Schoolcraft — 44 A Memoir on the history and physical geog- 
raphy of Minnesota, by M. II. Schoolcraft, L. L, D. ; " *• Plan for the 
investigation of American ethnology, to include the facts derived from 
other parts of the globe, and the eventful formation of a Museum of An- 
tiquities, and the peculiar fabrics of nations; and also the collection of a 
Library of the Philology of the world, manuscript and printed, submitted 
to the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian institution at their first meet- 
ing at Washington, in September, 1846." 

A pamphlet entitled " Notices of some Antique earthern vessels, by IT. 
R. Schoolcraft ; " also, 44 Historical considerations on the siege and de- 
fence of Fort Stanwix, in 1776;" and "Suggestions for travellers visit- 
ing the ancient sites of Indian occupancy in xAmerica." 

A pamphlet entitled "'Comparative Vocabulary of the Indian languages 
cf the United States," and Mr. Schoolcraft's address before the New 
York Historical Society, 17th Nov., 1846; and lastly the 44 Literature of 
the Indian Languages," by H. R. Schoolcraft. 

Hon. H. B . Sibley — Various public documents, and valuable maps, &c. 

Hon. Thos., Evvbank, Patent Office — A beautiful copy of the Patent 
Office Report, embellished with engravings, showing various grades of 
finish with the same plate. 

Edward H . Smith, of Ohio — A map of the United States, by Samuel 
Lewis, in 1775. 

Millard Fillmore, President of the United States — 44 Notes of Emory's 
Reconnoissanee in New Mexico- and California." 

Wm. J. Blake, Esq. — History of Putnam county, New York, 
Hon. John Woods, Auditor of the Stale of Ohio — Various public doc- 
uments. 

Benjamin P. Johnson, of the New York Agricultural Society— Vari- 
ous scientific tract*, to wit : 44 Analysis of the- Apple ; " 44 Elements oT. 



31 



Scientific Agriculture ; " " A prize essay, by John P. Norton ; " " Third 
Annual Report of the Albany and Rensellear Horticultural Society,' 5 &t3- 
Report of the commissioners appointed to mature and report a plan 
for an Agricultural College and experimental farm;" and also, " The 
journal of the New York State Agricultural Society." 

U. C. Lawrence, Patent Office — Various public documents, and "Doc- 
uments and letters intended to illustrate the Revolutionary incidents of 
(Queens county, with connecting narratives, explanatory notes and addi- 
tions, by Henry Onderdonk, Jr." 

Hon. II. Bennet — Public documents. 

Hon. J. Crowell, of Ohio — do. do. 

Hon. E. Whittlesey — " Remarks on the colonization of the western 
coast of Africa by the free negroes of the United States." 

O. S. Withersley, San Francisco — Documents in relation to Califor- 
nia. 

C. Cavileer, Min. Ter. — A catalogue of the Territorial Library of Min- 
nesota. 

Dr. Thomas Williamson, of Minnesota — A set of Indian school books, 
to wit: the "Dakota First Reading Book; " " Dakota Second Reading 
I3ook ; " " Dakota Lessons," Book 1 and 2. " My own book, prepared 
by S. R. Riggs. A. M. ; " " Extracts from Genesis and the Psalms, with 
the 3d chapter of Proverbs, and the 3d chapter of Daniel, in th* Dakota 
language ; " " Hymns in the Dakota or Sioux language; " " Sioux spell- 
ing book designed for the use of native learners ; " " Catechism in the 
Dakota or Sioux Language ; " Two volumes containing " The books of 
Genesis, and a part, ol the Psalms, the acts of the Apostles and the Epis- 
tles of Paul, with the Revelation of John, in the Dakota language." 

H. G. Jones, of Philadelphia — Memoirs of the Historical Society of 
Pen nsylvania. 

John P. Owens — " Annals of the West, by Rev. G. H. Perkins." 

Christopher Morgan, Secretary of Slate of the State of New York — 
Various public documents. 

C. K. Smith, Esq., of Monmouth, Illinois — " The M&nmoih Atlas,''* 
edited and published by himself, and forwarded to this Society weekly. 

J. W.C. Smith, of Minnesota — Splendid full length portraits of Gen- 
erals Harrison and Scott, together with various portraits of Indian chiefs, 
&c. 

Col. A. Mitchell, of Minnesota — " Rule3 of Practice in the courts of 
Minnesota," and instructions for taking the seventh census of the Unit- 
ed States. 

Miss Ellen A. Smith — A catalogue of curious, valuable and useful 
books, by John Pennington, of Philadelphia, and a pamphlet. The hu- 
man teeth; their devclopement, importance to health, and means of pres* 
ervation ; by Dr. S. C. Gray. &c. Also, the Constitution of the United 
States of America, together with rules of the House of Representatives 
and the joint rules- of the two Houses, &c. The first published map of 
the State of Ohio, taken from the returns in the office of the Surveyor 
General; by John F. Mansfield. A New York catalogue of the book* 
of Charles S. Francis & Co. 

By Laws of St. Paul Lodge, No. 1. of free and accepted Masons; — 
the Whig Almanac of 1849 ; and a pamphlet, entitled Minnesota : a 
description of the natural, political, mechanical, and agricultural state of 
Jh.c country, presenting prospects (or an immediate^ organization into a. 



32 



new Territorial government, with o table of distances ; 99 by Rev. J. W* 
Putnam, who preached two years ago in the country by the appointment 
of the Bishop of Rock River Conference. 

Rev. S. Spates, Sandy Lake — A small Indian canoe. 

Dr. John McMechan — IJistory of the French wars from the earliest 
times, &c. 

David Olmsted — " A History of the Black Hawk War," edited by 
John A. Wakefield, Es<|. 

By H. A. Prout, M. D. — A pamphlet entitled " The advantages of a 
geological Survey of the State of Missouri, " written by the donor. 

The following letters were addressed to the Secretary of the Minneso- 
ta Historical Society, to wit : 

Smithsonian Institution, November 19, 1849. 
Sir :-— We notice in the papers that a Historical Society has been in- 
stituted in Minnesota, of which the names of the officers are not given. — 
Our object in writing is to solicit in behalf of the Smithsonian Institution 
the co-operation of the Historical Society of Minnesota in our plans of in- 
creasing and diffusing knowledge among men. There are a number of 
subjects which merit investigation, in which the two institutions may be 
of mutual aid. In the first place we would refer to the extensive remains 
of the ancient people that formerly occupied this country, scattered over 
almost every part of North America: and we would direct your atten- 
tion to these, with a request that accurate surveys and drawings of every 
work of this kind be made by the members of your Society. After they 
have been presented to the Society, and approved of by it, if they are 
sent to the Smithsonian Institution, accompanied by the proper descrip- 
tions, they will be published in the same style as that of our first volume 
of Contributions to Knowledge. The expense of publications of this 
kind on account of the engraved plates is very great, and therefore the 
Institution ought to be put to no additional charge for making the origi- 
nal explorations. 

Another subject to which we wish to direct your attention is that of a 
system of Meteorological observations extending as far as possible over 
the whole surface of the continent of North America. We beg to request 
that you will co-operate with u^ in this enterprise* and commence a se- 
ries of observations at different points in your Territory; and it is desir- 
able that the Legislature of your Territory be induced to make a small 
grant for the purpose of supplying instruments for these observations, 
which it might be induced to do through the influence of your Society. 

Accompanying this we send you a copy of the report of the Smithso- 
nian Institution, from which it will be seen that the volumes of our con- 
tributions to knowledge are to be presented to all the learned societies 
in our country, and consequently your institution will be entitled to a 
copy. The volume is now in Washington, subject to your order. It 
consists of an account of the ancient monuments of the Mississippi Val- 
ley, and affords an illustration of the manner in which we wish to pre- 
sent to the world an account of all the ancient monuments of our coun- 
try. 

I remain very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

^ JOSEPH HENRY, 
Sec. Smithsonian Institution- 



33 



Treasury Department, Comptroller's Office, 
March Hh, 1850. 

Dear Sir: — Your letter of the 5th ult., informing me that I am elect- 
ed a member of the Minnesota Historical Society, is received; together 
with a pamphlet entitled *' Annals of the Minnesota Historical Society.'' 

Be pleased to assure the Society that I am deeply grateful for this 
mark of respect. If I shall be able to contribute to your Library by in- 
teresting public documents, I shall not fail to send them. I have read 
the Eev. Mr. NcilPs address with pleasure and profit. It is a valuable 
paper. 

The Society is organized at the right time, and in the proper manner. 
It cannot be too prompt in recording whatever remains of the early his- 
tory of your Territory; nor too vigilant in collecting and recording events 
as they shall take place. No part of the habitable globe has ever pos- 
sessed the same advantages as the new States and Territories of the 
United States, to collect and retain materials for correct history. In 
their cases, an ignorant, savage people have not been, nor are being, 
enlightened by the slow process of civilization ; but a country lying 
waste has been, and is being brought under cultivation as if by magic 
by an intelligent, industrious, moral and religious population. Each 
interesting incident may be collected for the use of future historians. 

If the citizens of St. Paul, (that being the seat of government,) shall 
feel a deep interest in the success of the Society, it will prosper; but if 
the principal dependence shall be placed on those living remote, wheth- 
er they shall be in public or private life, it will languish and die. The 
master spirits must be where the meetings of the Society are held — al- 
though you want the aid of your citizens in every part of your Territory. 
The Society will find much difficulty in inducing persons to commit to 
writing the incidents of the settlements, as they take place. Each one 
entertains the opinion that he is not qualified to write a page in history ; 
and if such is the case, still, every observing man may contribte his rnite 
towards the history of his country, by collecting facts to be used by com- 
petent persons hereafter. 

I hope the Society may be prosperous. 

My respectful acknowledgements to the officers and members of the 
Society are tendered through you. 

Most sincerely, yours. 

ELISHA WHITTLESEY. 



Washington, March 13lh< 1850. 
Sir ; — I have to acknowledge your favor of the 5th ult., advising m© 
of my election as an honorary member of the Minnesota Historical So- 
ciety. 1 beg that you will communicate to the members of the Soci-rA' 
my high appreciation of the honor which they have done me, and my 
grateful acceptance of the same. 

1 remain with high respect, 

Your friend and serv't, 

Z. TAYLOR. 

Washington, Ytik March, 1850. 
Sir : — ] have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your favor, un,- 
der date ol the 5th ult., informing me of my election as a mercijer of .the 
Minnesota Historical Society. 
H s 3 



34 



I beg leave to express to the Society my full sense of the compliment, 
and to assure them that I fully appreciate it. These societies are of 
vast importance in preserving the Tacts connected with the settlement 
and early history of their respective communities, and unfortunately, in 
general, too little appreciated. No une connected with the public af- 
fairs of the country but has had often cause to lament the absence of all 
light in regard to the early times of their respective States ; but the es- 
tablishment of such societies as yours will prevent the evil from becoming 
enlarged. 

My distance from your Territory will of course prevent me from tak- 
ing an active part in your labors; but I shall nevertheless feel the most 
anxious solicitude for the Society's success. 

1 have the honor t* » be, 

Verv respectfully, yours, &c, 

D. T. DISNEY. 



Washington, March 18/A, 1850. 

Sir : — Accept my thanks, and please present them to the other mem- 
bers of the Minnesota Historical Society, ior the honor of my election a» 
a member of it, communicated by your letter of the 5th Februarv last. 

it will afford me pleasure to co-operate, as a correspondent, in the ob- 
jects of the Society. As an earnest of this interest, I herewith transmit 
copies of some papers, heretofore printed, that happen to lie at hand; 
which I beg to present to its library. 1 also transmit for your archives a 
brief memoir on the soil, productions and climate of Minnesota. 

I have read, with much pleasure, Mr. Neill's address, which gives a 
clear and concise account of the course of discovery in the Norlh- West, 
In the 17th century. Your next step should be to get a view, equally full, 
of the modern history of discovery, particularly of the Mississippi river, 
the sources of which are, historically, in your keeping. 

In his *" supplement," Mr. Neill was evidently in want of books to en* 
able him to do full justice to the subject. He leaves the ancient discov- 
ery of this stream at the mouth of the St. Francis. It is due to the Unit- 
ed States government to detail the several steps taken by it. beginning 
in 1805, with the expedition of Pike, and ending in 1836, with the ulti- 
mate report of Nicollet, to explore the direction, and lo fix the actuai 
source of this stream. 

I am. Sir, with respect, 
Your ob t serVt, 

HENRY R. SCHOOLCRAFT. 



St. Paul, Minnesota, Jpril, 99th. 1850. 

Sir : — Through you, as one of its executive officers, permit me to pre* 
sent to the Minnesota Historical Society, a copy of the * 4 History of Put- 
Ham Countj;, N. Y." 

With tiie exception of its geological features and Revolutionary facta, 
Putnam county, (containing Arnold's head quarters while in command' 
uf West Point, and from which he escaped to the English sloop-ol'-war, 
Vulture, two hours before the arrival of Washington at that post.) con- 
tains but little that is interesting to the scientific and literary man. 

The work, herewith tnmsmi'tcd, is local in its character; and, with 
ffce exception of personal friends, was not expected to circulate beyond 
t\\e county which it desctibes. 



1730246 



35 



Although I am a stranger in your midst, yet, seeking a home upon 
the bluff- bound shores of'* the mighty Father of V aters," I cannot re- 
press my feelings of admiration at the pleasing and early manifestation 
of the spirit for scientific and literary research — for mental culture, and 
the acquisition of traditionary and legendary lore — evinced by the or- 
ganization and incorporation of the Minnesota Historical Society. Eslo 
pcrnclua, 

I am. very respectfully, yours, 

WM. J. BLAKE. 



U. S. Patent Office, 

Washington^ 2d May, 1850. 
Sir: — Your letter of the 15th April, communicating the intelligence of 
my election as a member of the Minnesota Historical Society, was re- 
ceived to day. 

The rapidity with which the tide of civilization is rolling westward, 
renders the organization of Historical Societies of high importance, and 
of exceeding interest; and I doubt not that the labors of a society so 
early formed as yours, will furnish invaluable materials for the future his- 
tory of Minnesota. 

Should opportunities occur by which I may further the objects of the 
Society, it will give me pleasure to avail myself of them. 

Be pleased to make my best acknowledgements to the Society for the 
honor conferred upon me. 

With sentiments of hig regard. 

Your ob't serv't, 

THOS. EWBANK. 
P. S. — I beg to contribute to the library of the Society, the Reports of 
this Office for the years '43, '45, '46, '47, '48, together with other docu- 
ments, mailed to your address this day. The lleport for 1849 will be 
forwarded as soon as published. 

Kaposia, July 9, 1850. 

Dear Sir : — At the last meeting of the missionaries of the American 
Board of Com. Foreign Missions, who are laboring among the Dakotas, 
we voted to present to the Minnesota Historical Society a copy of each of 
the books which have been prepared by the members of this mission, 
and published in the Dakota language. These books I have the honor 
to forward herewith, except two small pamphlets, of which I have not 
now with me a perfect copy, but which I hope to procure and send you 
hereafter. The books which i send herewith are the following, num- 
bered in order as they were published : 

1. The Sioux Spelling Book, pp 22, 12 mo. 



in 1 vol. IS mo. short. 



The Dakota First Heading Book, pp 40, 

3. History of Joseph, pp 56. 

4. Extracts from Genesis, the Psalms, &c. pp. 72, ) ■ , , . u 

r 'Pi n l e M , no f m * Vol. short, 

5. i he Gospel ol Mark, 90. V Ig 

6. Extracts from Matthew, Luke, &a. " 48, ^ °" 

7. Odowanwowapi Dakota Hymns, pp. 105 13 mo. 

8. Wowapi lanonpa 2 reading book, * k 54 do, 

9. Wowapi Mitowa, ** G4 16 mo. 

10. Wowapi wakan 1, (Genesis, p;rl of Psalms, (Joapsla of Luka and 
John, ) pp. 293, 12 mo, 



36 

11. Wowapiwakan 2, (Acts of the Apostles, Epistles of Paul, and 
Revelation of John,) 228, 12 mo. 

12. VViwangapi wowapi, Catechism in Dakota, pp 12, 12 mo. 

13. Dakota tawoonspe wowapi 1, pp 48, 16 mo. 

14. Dakota tawoonxspi 11, pp. 48, 16 mo. 

The books which 1 cannot send you now are, a translation of Watt's 
2d catechism in the Dakota Language, which in order of publication 
would be 2d, pp. 28, 12 mo.; and history of two pious Indian females, 
pp. 8, 12 mo. / 

These works consist of several elementary reading and spellingbooks ; 
nearly one hundred hymns, and a translation of the entire book of Gen- 
esis; about half of the book of Psalms ; and the whole of the New Tes- 
tament, except the Gospel of Matthew, and the Epistles of Peter, James, 
Jude, and 1 chapter of 1 Epl., and 2d and 3d Epistles of John. We 
think it probable the time is near when they will be regarded with much 
interest by the antiquarian and the ethnologist; and that you will there- 
forejudge them worthy of a place in the aichives of the Society. 

You will please accept them as a token of the interest we feel in the 
objects of the Society. 

In behalf of the Mission, I am, 

Respectfully yours, 

TllO. S. WILLIAMSON, M. D. 



Baltimore, Sept. 13, 1850. 
Dear Sir : — I have seen in the papers an account of the formation of 
a Historical Society in your Territory; and 1 beg, on the part of the So- 
ciety of this State, to open a correspondence with you, which I hope will 
be agreeable and useful to us both. 

We have placed the name of your Society upon our list of exchanges ; 
and I will forward to you at an early day the constitution and by-laws, 
together with all the publications made by our Society up to this time. 

Engaged in the same important cause, we feel a sincere interest in 
the success of your effort to preserve in an unbroken and reliable con- 
nection the facts of your historical progress; and we congratulate you, 
that, you have wisely determined to begin your interesting task so early 
in the history of your community. 

I will be very glad to do any service in my power for your Society 
here ; and with the assurance of our cordial sympathy and best wishes 
for your success, I am, D'r Sir, 

Very resp'y and truly, 
Your ob't servant, 

J. MORRISON HARRIS, 
Cor. Sec. Md. Hist. Sac 1 p. 



St. Louis, Jan'y 15, 1861; 

My Dear Sir: — I received your note, informing me of my election 
as an honorary member of the Minnesota Historical Society. 

Please tender to the members of the Society my sincere thanks for the 
honor which they have conferred on me, and give them every assurance 
that when occasions may offer, 1 will cheerfully lend my aid in promoting 
the laudable objects of their association. 



37 



I send two copies of a paper which I have just prepared in much haste 
for our Legislature, on the advantages of a geological survey of our 
State. Though mostly of local interest, 1 trust it will prove worthy of 
perusal outside of the limits of Missouri. 

I have the honor to subscribe myself, with sentiments of the highest 
regard, 

Your most obedient and humblo serv't, 

H. A. PROUT. 



Washington, Jan'y 21, 1851. 

Sir : — I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communi- 
cation of the 19th ultimo, informing me that 1 have been elected a mem- 
ber of the Minnesota Historical Society. 

I value very highly this unexpected compliment, residing as I do at 
so great a distance from the Territory of Minnesota, and with very little 
-or no acquaintance with its population. But we belong to the same 
magnificent valley, although my home is among the orange groves and 
cane fields of lower Louisiana, and yours in the more elevated and sa- 
lubrious regions nearthe sources of that great river which fertilizes both. 
Our historical antiquities and reminiscences are also the same. The 
same pious and bold adventurers, who were the first of the European 
race to behold, in a then unbroken solitude, the Falls of St. Anthony, pen- 
etrated as far as the Gulf of Mexico. We belong also to the same polit- 
ical system, notwithstanding the diversity of our soil, climat*. produc- 
tions, and domestic institutions; and must, in my judgment, always be 
united under the same system, as long as the same water which pours 
s over your mighty Falls, continues to pass in tranquil majesty by the city 
of New Orleans, to mingle with the waters of the Gulf. 

It was wise in you and your associates, to make the foundation of your 
Society coeval with the existence of a separate political organization of 
government in the Territory. Your transactions and collections, em- 
bracing every publication, which relates to your progress as a communi- 
ty, may thus furnish full and authentic materials for future history, as well 
as the memorials of the aboriginal races, which are fast disappearing. — 
It may not be in my power to contribute much, except, perhaps, some 
sketches of the first discoveries, which my connexion with the Louisiana 
Historical Society may enable me to procure; but at least you will have 
my best wishes for the successful prosecution of your labors, and my 
hearty co-operation in whatever may be in my power. 
I have the honor to be. 

Verv respectfully, 

'Yours, &c, II. A. DULLARD. 



A letter from Rev. Mr. Gear, of Fort Snelling, Min. Ter. 
M Allen Morrison, Crow Wing, " 

M J. H. McKinney. Fort Gaines, " 

" Rev. M. N. Adams, Lac-qui-Parle, " 

" Lieut. S. B. Buckner, Fort Snelling, 44 

Rev. Mr. Raveaux, St. Paul, 



38 

A letter from Miss Harriet E. Bishop, " " 
44 James S. Norris, Cottage Grove, " 

*« H. N. Setzer, Snake River, " 

44 Rev. D. Lovvry, Long Prairie, " 

" Rev. S. Spates, Sandy Lake, 44 

** Hon. Henry S. Foote, Washington City, D, C. 

" " Fitz Henry Warren, 44 

44 44 Edward Stanley, 44 

44 44 Thomas Ewing, 44 

44 William A. Graham, 
4 » 44 Wm. M. Meredith, 44 

44 44 Lewis Cass, 44 

44 William H. Seward, " 
44 Gen. Jos. G. Totten, 44 

44 Hon. Millard Fillmore, 44 

44 44 Christopher Morgan, Secretary ofthe State of N. Y 

44 Benjamin P. Johnson, Sec'y Agricultural Society, N. Y. 

44 William E. Curtis, Esq., New York. 

44 Hon. .Jacob Burnet, Ohio. 

» 4 44 James McBride, 44 

A. H. Lewis, 
44 David Heaton, 44 

44 John McMechan, M. D., 44 

44 Edward D. Mansfield, 44 

44 F. D. Rigdon, ' 4 

44 Hon. John J. Crittenden, Ky. 

44 C. K. Smith, Illinois. 

44 Rev. R. Hopkins, Minnesota. 

44 Geo. W. McCleary, Secretary of State, Iowa. 



Brevet Major Samuel Wood, of Fort Snelling was charged with the 
duty of making a military examination of the Pembina country or rather 
of the country ''on or near the Red river of the North," for the purpose 
of establishing a military post there. He started from Fort Snelling on 
the sixth of June, 1849, accompanied by Dr. Sykes, acting assistant 
Surgeon, 2d. Lieut. A. D. Nelson 6th Infantry, Qr. M. and (Jom'y, and 
2d. Lieut, and Brevet Captain John Pope Top. Engineers. Lieut. 
Nelson had under his charge a mountain howitzer and the train by which 
the supplies were being transported. Company D. 1st Dragoons, num- 
bering 40 non-commissioned officers, and privates, under command of 
1st. Lieut. J. W. T. Gardner and 2d. Lieut. T. F. Caster. Full and 
detailed reports of this expedition are given by Major V/ood and Captain 
John Pope to the Secretary of War, which have been published and con- 
tain much valuable and interesting information in relation to the countrv 
examined, and embraces the country, more particularly between Fort 
Ripley as it is now called, (Gaines) and 44 on and near the Red river of 
the North." Space will not permit a further notice of these reports. — 
i must content myself with giving the following tables from the report of 
Captain Pope, and also an extract from his letter to Henrv M. Rice, 
Esq: 



39 



Table of distances by the land mule from the mouth of the St. Peter's to 
the Pembina settlement. 



From Fort Snelling— 




To falls of St. Anthony 

To BanfilPs, at mouth of Rice creek 

To mouih of Rum river - 

To mouth of Elk river 

To Big lake - - 

To Big meadows - 

To Oilman's, (Watab) near Sauk rapids - 

To David lake - - 

To White Boar lake 

To Pike lake - - ; 

To main branch of Chippewa river - 

To Porhme de terre or Potato river 

To Rabbit river - - - -v 

To first crossing of Red river of the North 

To sec ond crossing of Red river of the North 

To VV ild Rice river - 

To Shayenne river 

To Maple river • - - 

To Rush river - - - - 

To second point of Rush river - . - 

To point of ridge - 

To main branch of Elm river - 

To south branch of Goose river 

To Salt lake - 

To main branch of Goose river 

To crossing ©f Goose river . - 

To Turtle river - 

To Big Salt river 

To Little Salt river . - 

To Little Hill river - 

To Steep Hill river 

To i I art shorn river - - 

To Mud river and Poplar island 

To branch of Tongue river 

To Mouth of Pembina river 



n 

9 
13 

n 

29 
39 

8 
13 
10 
12 
13 
20 
1 Si- 
ll 
17 
18 V 

9* 
16 

7i 

8i 
10* 

2* 
18 
19* 

9 

m 

3 

7 
16 
10* 



Total. 



16V 

2o:i 

33E 
47 

76.1 
105' 
144 1 
152. 7 
1631 

l^H 
1Q51 

203/. 
223.', 
237 ~ 
248 
265 

283:1 

293 

3Q9 

310.1 

325" 

333A 

344 

346.1 

364-| 

384 

393 

405* 

410* 

413 

420 

436 

416! 



Table of soundings of Red river of the North. 



From mouth of Pembina river to tho mouth of Red Lake river 

From Red Lake river above mouth - 

From Red Lake river to mouth of Goose river 

Over rapid near mouth of Sand Bill river - 

Goose river above mouth - 



Feet. 
15 
14 
13 

6 
64 



40 



From mourn of G oose river to mouth of Shayenne 

Shayenne river above mouth 

From Shayenne to mouth of Wild Rice river 

From Wild Rice to Sioux Wood river 

Sioux Wood river above mouth 

Oltertail lake - 



11 

6h 
9 

8 6 
3 
19 



Table of distances by water f rom Pembina settlement to head of naviga 
Hon of Bed river of the North. 



From mouth of Pembina river- 



Miles. 



To Elack river (mouth) 
To mouth of Coulee de Bois percee 
To riviere aux Essinees 
To mouth of Park river 
To mouth of riviere au Marais (No. 1) 
To mouth of Salt river 
To mouth of riviere au Marais (No. 2) 
To mouth of Turtle river 
To mouth of riviere au Marais (No. 3) 
To mouth of Coulee de L'Anglais 
To mouth of Red Lake river 
To mouth of Coon creek 
To mouth of La Grand Coulee 
To mouth of Coulee de jeune bceuf 
To mouth of riviere on au Marais (No. 4) 
To mouth of Coulee du " nez-rouge v 
To mouth of Coulee de " la batte de sable n 
To mouth of Coulee des vaches 
To mouth of Sand Hill river 
To mouth of riviere au Marais (No. 5) 
To mouth of Goose river - 
To mouth of Wild ttice river from the east 
To mouth of Elm river - 
To campment D'Ours 
To mouth of Buffalo river - 
To mouth of Shayenne river - 
To mouth of Wild Rice river from the west 
To mouth of Cut-off - 
To mouth of Sioux Wood river 
To Lake Traverse - 
To southwestern extremity of Lake Travers 



24 

3 
28 

3 
18 
13 

4 
28 
11 
18 

4 

n 

8 

2| 

3 

8 

4i 
1 

H 

23i 
I 

22-J 

H 

12 
9 
10 

45 
5 
92 
30 
15 



Total. 



27 

55 

58 

76 

89 

93 
121 
132 
150 
154 

153;, 

166J 

169 

172 

180 

184* 

185£ 

191 

£14| 

215 

237^ 

244 

256 

265 

275 

320 

325. 

417 

447 

462' 



Variations of the Compass. 

deg. min. sec. 

At the mouth of the St. Peter's river - - E. 15 28 40 

At the mouth of the 'Sioux Wood river- - E. 12 27 15 

At the mouth of the Pembina river - - E. 13 16 324 



41 



Tables of latitude and longitude. 
MoutWf St. Peter's, latitude 44° 52' 46"; longitude 93° 4' 54" Nicollet. 
Mouth of the Osakis, latitude 45° 35' 35"; longitude 94° 12' do. 

The belt of country between the Mississippi the St. Peter's and a line 
from the head of the St Peter's to the head of the Mississippi, gently un- 
dulating in its character, containing about equal proportions of prairie 
and timber, intersected in all directions by beautiful clear streams, trib- 
utary to the Mississippi and St. Peter's, navigable always in the spring of 
the year nearly to their sources by flat boals, abounding in lakes of pure 
fresh water, and possessing a soil unrivaled in fertility, presents a re- 
gion, which for its peculiar conformation and vast productiveness, is un- 
equalled in the world. 

So numerous are the streams and comparatively so large, that I doubt 
if one could travel ten miles in any direction, without finding locations 
for a farm, which, possessing all advantages known to the farmer in other 
States, has the additional advantage of furnishing him with the timber 
and the streams which will enable him to load his flat boat at his own 
•door, and transport it in a very short time to points on the Mississippi and 
St. Peter's navigated by steam boats. In the number of its navigable 
rivers and the unlimited available water power it possesses, Minnesota 
stands without a competitor — with the Missouri in the Souih-west, the 
Mississippi in the centre, navigable for steam boats at least five hundred 
miles within the Territory; the St. Peter's one hundred and sixty ; the 
Red river of the North four hundred, the St. Croix tothe head of its lake; 
the Rum, Crow. St. Louis and a thousand other streams, navigable in a 
small class of boats, many miles above their mouths, the western extremi- 
ty of Lake Superior projecting far into the country and affording a broad 
outlet to the east, a climate proverbially healthy and a soil surpassingly 
fertile. — Minnesota must ere long be the paradise of the North-west. 

Nature seems to have intended that all the produce a3id all the Manu- 
factures of Minnesota, should find a market within the U. S., since the 
Red river of the North, the eventual highway for the productions of its 
immense valley, although navigable for steamboats for at least four 
months in the year, and for four hundred miles of" its course within the 
Territory, is yet owing to rapids and falls, not navigable fifty miles north 
of our frontier. 

I have heard it objected to Minnesota, that it was a polar region, the 
climate unendurable in the winter and altogether too severe for any ag- 
ricultural purposes — with how little foundation are such objections made 
and how easily corrected even by hasty reference to the maps of the 
country. The latitude of the Southern line of Minnesota is the parallel 
of 43 deg. 30 min, N., and although it extends to the parallel of 49 deg. 
and embraces an area of 166 000 Squ.'ire miles it is not to be supposed 
that the whole of this region will be included in one state — all the wealth- 
iest and most productive wheat and, grain country of Canada, is north of 
46 deg., a great portion of the best lands of New York, Vermont, New 
Hampshire and Maine are north of the southern line of Minnesota and the 
northern boundaries of the two latter states are certainly farther to the 
north than will be the northern line of the new state of Minnesota. How 
easily then could people convince themselves of the error of such opin- 
ions, merely by reference to Maps and without the trouble of reading 
anything upon the subject. 



42 



Another objection which I'have heard urged is the great superabun- 
dance of Prairie land and the consequent scarcity of timber. This ob- 
jection, (if it be one) can only apply to the Valley of the Red river of the 
North, only a small portion of which will probably be included within the 
oew state, but any one who has traveled through the northern and far 
the most prosperous portion of Illinois will find the timber equally if not 
more scarce, than in the Valley of the Red river. Yet the farmers of 
northern Illinois, have found a very speedy and effectual remedy for this 
scarcity by planting groves of trees over ihe prairies, which in 15 or 20 
years will furnish all the timber necessary — thousands of these groves arc- 
to be seen in Illinois in the middle of the prairies and many miles from 
the natural timber. 

It is unnecessary to discuss farther such objections, since their fallacy 
is very perceptible to every practical farmer in the country. 



HISTORICAL REFERENCES FOR THE VALLEY OF THE MIS- 
SISSIPPI. 

The aboriginal meaning of the name Mississippi is Great River. — 
The word sepv, or sepim, among the Algonquin Indians, means river, or 
running water. Marquette spells it " Mississippi." Hennepin makes it 
*• Meschasipi ;" Du Pratz says, " by some of the savages of the north it 
is called Meact-chassipi;" others have written " Meschasabe." After 
its discovery by Joliet and Marquette, count Frontinac called it Colbert, 
in honor of the French minister of Marine* La Salle named it St. Louis; 
but the original name has prevailed. 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 

1. Hernando de Soto's Expedition into Florida, or. as mere common- 
ly but improperly entitled, «.* The Conquest of Florida," as North America 
was then called by the Spaniards. This was one of the wildest and 
most unsuccessful of Spanish enterprises. De Soto, and his army of 
some twelve hundred men and four hundred horses landed in what we 
now call Florida, in May, 1539, and after va-rious hardships, disasters, 
defeat and conquest, in penetrating the wilderness and engaging with 
hostile savages in Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Tennessee, they 
reached the Mississippi river in 1541 , which they called Rio Grande near 
the Lower Chicksaw Bluffs. The ri.ver and itsscenery is described with 
tolerable accuracy. De Soto died of a fever in 1542, and was buried in 
the " Great river," near the mouth of Red river. His army, under 
Moscose. his successor, after exploring the " far west,'' and sustaining 
various disasters, and reduced to a mere fragment, reached Mexico. 

There are two histories, or. as they are called k ' Chronicles" of this 
expedition. One was written by a Portuguese soldier, of which an En- 
glish translation was published in London. 1686. An abridgement may 
be found in Purehas' Pilgrims. The other was written by the Inca Gar- 
cilaso de la Vega, and was denominated " The Florida of the Inca, or 
the History- of the Adalantado, Hernando de Soto, govei nor and captain* 



43 



general of the kingdom of Florida, and of other heroic cavaliers, Span- 
iards and Indians." This chronicle was printed at Madrid in 1723. and 
is to be found incorporated nearly entire by Ilerrara, in his history of 
the Indies. No doubt there is much of fable and exaggeration in these; 
accounts of de Soto's expedition, as there is of every Spanish expedition 
of that period; yet both internal and external prools exist to show them to 
be substantially true. 

Our readers will find a free translation of these chronicles by Theo- 
dore Irving, Esq., in two volumes l?.no. published by Lea & Blanch- 
ard, Philadelphia, 1835. Dr. Bancroft, in his elaborate History of 
America, first volume, has given the substance of de Soto's ill-fated 
expedition. 

2. The Journal of Joliet and Marquette. — Joliet was a trader in Can- 
ada, and a man of flaring enterprise. P. Marquette was a devoted Jes- 
uit missionary. The French of Canada, about the year 1C90; had learned 
from the Indians that a great river existed in the west, which they fan- 
cied terminated in the western ocean. To investigate this question, 
Joliet and Marquette were selected by M. Talon, the intendant of New 
France, as Canada was then called. They conducted an expedition, 
attended by five French boatmen and two Indians, up Green bay and 
Fox river to the "Oui.sconsing" and down that stream to the Mississippi, 
which they readied June 17th 1673. They went down the Great river 
past the Missouri, which the Algonquin Indians called Pckila.noiri, as 
fair the as the Arkansas, and returned up the Illinois river, (called by 
Marquette, Iliinrsc) and by Chicago to Canada. 

The regular journal of Joliet, the commander, was lost, but that of 
Marquette was published in France in 1601. A poor translation, given 
as an appendix to Hennepin's volumes, was printed in London, 1698. — 
Jaied Sparks, in his Library of American Biography, volume x., has 
furnished a full and correct account of this expedition, the substance of 
which is contained in the second edition of Butler's History of Ken- 
tucky. 

3. An Account of the Expedition and Discoveries of M. de la Salle in 
Norili America: By Chevalier Tonti. — We place this work next to that 
of Marquette, and lA preference to Henepin's journal, as historical au- 
thority, in point of accuracy. 

La Salle was a man of uncommon enterprise and perseverance. — 
Having formed the project of a trading and exploring expedition on the 
waters of the ''Great river," and having obtained the sanction of the king 
of France, he set out from Frontenac in 1678, accompanied by Tonti, 
his lieutenant, father Louis Hennepin, a Franciscan, and thirty or forty 
mfen, He readied the ''river of the Miamis" [Chicago] in November, 
1679, passed over to the waters of the Illinois, built a fort and establish- 
ed a trading house not far from the present site of Peoria. In 1683, as 
our references show, (or in 1682. according to Bancroft.) La Salle went 
down the Mississippi to its mouth, setup the cross, and took possession 
of the country in the name of the king of France, and called it Louis- 
iana. 

On his return, he established trading posts at Kaskaskia and Cahokia. 
Subsequently La Salle went to P'rance. fitted out an expedition to form a 
colony on the lower Mississippi, but could not find the river, lie sailed 
along the gulf of Mexico, and finally established his colony on the bay of 
St. Bernard, in Texas. From this point he commenced an overland 



journey to Illinois, but was barbarously assassinated by two of his own 
men near the mouth of lied river. 

Tonti communicated to the court of France, the facts of the history to 
which this article refers, it is quite doubtful whether he wrote it in its 
present form. There is some evidence that he denied being its proper 
author. The probability is, his communications and journals were com- 
piled and worked up in the present form by some French writer and 
published in Tonti's name. The general accuracy has not been ques- 
tioned, and its credibility has been confirmed by Charlevoix and other 
authorities. Tonti's work was published at Paris in January. 1697, and 
was translated and published in London in 1698. This English transla- 
tion may be found in the second volume of the '"Collections of the New 
York Historical Society," first series, 1814. 

4. A New Discovery of a Large Country in North America, extending 
about four thousand miles; By Father Louis Hennepin. — An English 
translation of this work may be found in the "Archaeo/ogia Americana," 
©rthe '"Transactions and collections of the American Antiquarian Soci- 
ety," vol. i. 1820. 

We hesitate not to say that Hennepin's journals are exceedingly in- 
correct, and portions are of very doubtful authority. 

In ail the Spanish and French expeditions, whether of war, discovery, 
or trade, the Catholic missionary or priest accompanied the enterprise. 
Hennepin, a Franciscan friar of the Recollet order, commanded no ex- 
pedition, and had no secular authority whatever. He accompanied La 
♦Salle in the capacity of priest alone. 

In 1680, while La Salle was conducting his trade at Fort Crevecceur 
on the Illinois river, he. projected an exploring expedition up the Missis- 
sippi. M. Dacan was appointed commandant, with four Frenchmen, 
two Indians, and father Louis Hennepin as chaplain. They started Feb- 
ruary 28th, descended the Illinois to the Mississippi, ascended t'net river 
to the Falls of St. Anthony, to which they gave this name. Here the par- 
ty were taken prisoners by the Issati, (Sioux) and detained till August, 
when by means ot some French traders, they obtained their liberty, and 
returned to Canada. 

Soon after Hennepin went to France, and, in 1683, published his "De- 
scription of L misiana" the adventures of La Salle, and of his own ex- 
pedition up the Mississippi, and capture by the Indians. Nothing is. 
said in this work about a voyage down the Great river. In 1697, he 
published at Utrecht the same account substantially, with additions con- 
taining an account of a voyage down the Mississippi to its mouth. This 
is called " A New Discovery," &c. The reason he gives why he did 
net publish this voyage in his former work, is the benevolent wish that 
La Salle might have all the honor of that discovery, and that he violated 
his orders in going down the river ! The truth is, this voyage down the 
Great River is a constructive one, and was first published ten years after 
the death of La Salle, and several months alter La Salle's expedition by 
Tonti had appeared in Paris. Hennepin had been conversant with La 
Salle and Tonti, and their men, after their expedition down the Missis- 
sippi in 1683, and it is likely had access to Tonti's journal, and most 
likely saw it in print before his "New Discovery," as this last work was 
called, came out. But there is satisfactory internal evidence that his 
" New Discovery" was made in part out of La Salle's exploration. — 
-There are a number of remarkable coincidences in the two journals. — 



45 



Hennepin stops at the same places, meets the same Indians, and nar- 
rates the same incidents as are found in the work ascribed to Tonti. But 
taking his own account of this voyage, himself and two men paddled a 
canoe up the Mississippi at the rate of eighteen miles an hour for sixtv 
hours in succession ! But where was Captain Dacan all this time ? Did 
he disobey orders and go down the Mississippi ? The truth is, Henne- 
pin never commanded any expedition. He was merely the chaplain of 
Dacan and his party up the Mississippi to the Kails of St. Anthony, where 
they were made prisoners by the Sioux, from whence he went to Canada, 
b)' way of Wisconsin, and to France, and published a tolerably correct, 
but somewhat exaggerated account of the various explorations and dis- 
coveries on the Mississippi, with a map of the country. In 1G97, after 
the book ascribed to Tonti came out, he worked up his w Louisiana™ in- 
to his " Mew Discovery," to which he added his constructive voyage 
down the Mississippi, and various other fictions. 

For a more lull examination ot this subject, our readers are referred to 
Martin's History of Louisiana, vol. i.p. 94; Stoddard's Sketches of 
Louisiana, pp. 16 — 19; Spark's Life of Marquette; North American 
Review, vol. xlvii. p. 5., vol xlviii. p. 63., idem p. 258 ; and Democratic 
Review for April, 1839. 

r >. La II Mian's Voyages to North America. — La Houtan was born in 
Gascony, France; went to Canada as a soldier, at sixteen years old, in 
1683, where he continued ten years; became a commandant, during 
which period he wrote a series of letters to an ancient relative in France. 
Under count Frontenac, in 1688-9, he commanded an expedition up the 
Jakes, Green Bay, and Wisconsin, to the Mississippi; thence up Long 
River, some distance above the Wisconsin. This he describes as com- 
ing from the west, its mouth full of" bull-rushes," channel narrow, alter- 
nate groves of timber and prairies. He describes villages of Indians 
which lie visited, consisting of many thousands, as the Ejkoves, Essan- 
apes, and Gracsitarcs, and several lakes through which he passed. Of 
these tribes of Indians he professes to have gained much information ot 
other great nations, far to the west, over the mountains, as the Tahug- 
lauk, Mozcemlefe, and others, and of a grear salt lake. The "long riv- 
er" must have been the St. Peters, and tiie account an inflated and ex- 
aggerated description of what was probably a small affair. This voyago 
was in the winter, but they were not incommoded with ice. It must have 
been a singularly mild winter. 

On the 2d of March, 1689, they reached the Mississippi, clown which 
they proceeded past the Moingona, (Des Moines,) and the " Riviere dv 
Missouris." Up the strong current of this river they rowed, stopping at 
Indian villages, until they reached the " liiviere des Osages," whom 
they encamped. Here they wantonly set fire to an Indian village, "which 
put the women and children in such consternation that they run from 
place to place, calling out for mercy." This was the first voyage by Eu- 
ropeans up the Missouri river. From the Osage river, La Houtan and 
his party returned to the Mississippi, and down that river to the mouth 
of the Ouabach, (Ohio) where they spent two days. From thence thev 
returned and went up the Iliinese river, and at Fort CreveccEur met witia 
Tonti and thirty coureurs de Bois, trading with the Illinese Indians. Ou 
Use 2'Ilh of April the party arrived at G&akakou. At the mouth of the 
Oumamis (St. Joseph '<) they met a war party of four hundred Uline*;.? 
*• employed in burning three Iroquese." La Houtan. having reacted 



46 



Canada, returned to France, and formed a project to subdue the Iroquese 
(Five nations) with whom the French weie at war. The 44 project." it 
aeems, did not meet with sufficient encouragement from the ministry ; 
but its projector received the appointment of lieutenant of Newfound- 
land, where, upon his arrival, he had a quarrel with the governor, was 
disgr aced, returned to Europe, and spent some years in Portugal, Den- 
mark and England. 

His "Travels in North America" were first published in French, at 
Amsterdam in two volumes, 12 mo., 1705, but subsequently translated, 
enlarged, and republished in London, 1735. iiis accounts of the "cus- 
toms, commerce, religion and strange opinions of the savages of that 
country," are copious and interesting; to which is appended vocabula- 
ries of several languages, with some sketches of the natural history of the 
country. 

6. Jlistoire el Description Genereal de la NiuvcJIe France; By F. X. 
Charlevoix, a Jesuit missionary, was completed and published in three 
volumes, 4to., 1744. It has since been republished in various forms. — 
Portions of his work were a series of letters addressed to the duchess 
Lesdiguieres, and were translated into English and puulished in two 
volumes, London, 1761. The date of these letters commence June. 
30th, 1702, at Tiochcfort, as the author was about to sail for Quebec, and 
close on his return to Rouen, January 5th. 1723. They are entitled, 
"Journal of a Voyage to North America, undertaken by order ol the 
French king, containing the Geographical Description and Natural His- 
tory of that country, called Canada, together with an account of the cus- 
toms, character, religion, manners, and traditions, of the original inhab- 
itants." 

The author landed at Quebec, passed up the lakes to Mackinaw, and 
thence up Lake Michigan to the St. Josephs', thence to the "Theakiki," 
(now Kankakee.) down that into the Illinois to Puniiiouij, (Peoria,) and 
whence to Kaskasquias. He describes the village of "Caaquias and 
Tamarouas" where was a Jesuit mission station; the ''mines, of the riv- 
ar Marameg;" the mission to the Kaskasqiuras, fort Chartres, and the 
"colony of illinois." From the Illinois country, Charlevoix went down 
to the "Natchez," and gives a description of their country and several 
Indian villages; from thence to NewOrleans, Biloxi, the West indies, and 
home to France. 

So far as his statements depend on his personal observation, Charle- 
voix is mainly correct; but some of his statments, obtained from others, 

ure doubtful. 

7. Lellres Edifiantcs et Curiruses, or. Curious and Edifying Letters,. 
These are selections from the correspondence of the Jesuit missionaries, 
from all parts of the world for more than two hundred years. The pub- 
lication was commenced about 1702, and extended to twenty-eight vol- 
umes. The Lyons edition in French, of 1819 contains fifteen octavo 
volumes, with letters continued to about the middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. Volumes iv. and v. of this edition contain their "Leitres" from Can- 
ada and the Mississippi valley. They disclose many incidents and facta 
of tiie early history ot those regions, especially of the numbers and cir- 
cumstances ofthc various tribes of Indians. 

8 Carters Travels. — Captain Jonathan Carver set out from Boston, 
Mass., June, 1708, by way of Albany, Niagara, and the upper lakes to 
Mackinaw, from thence by Green bay, Fox river, and the Wisconsin to th$ 



47 



Mississippi, thence to lake Pepin and the falls of St. Anthony. He spent 
more than two years among the Naridowessies .[Sioux.] VVinnebagoes, 
and other Indians* and has written largely and particularly on the origin, 
customs, religion, and languages of the Indians, with descriptions ofthe ge- 
ography and topography ofthe country. its natural history and productions. 

9. Journal of Andrew ElUcott. — This is a scarce and valuable work, 
especially for its exactness in determining, by a series of astronomical 
observations, the latitude and longitude of various points on the Ohio and 
Mississippi. 

Mr. Ellicott was commissioned to examine and run the southern boun- 
dary ofthe United States adjoining that of Spain, which he executed irv 
1706, '97, '93, 99, and 1 800. The work before us is a large quarto volume,- 
containing the "journal," with "occasional remarks on the situation,- 
soil, rivers, natural productions, diseases of the different countries on.- 
the Ohio, Mississippi', and Gulf of Mexico, six large maps, and an apt 
pendix containing ail the astronomical observations in detail, are includ- 
ed in the book. 

10. History ofthe Expedition under the command of Captains Lewi* 
o.nd Clark, to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rock}/-- 
Mountains and down the River Columbia to the Pacific Ocean, performed 
during the years 1304, 1305 ai^d 1806, by the order of the Government 
ofthe United States. 

This journal was prepared for the press by Paul Allen, Esq., and 
published in Philadelphia, in 1814, in two volumes 8vo., and gives a vast 
amount of original intelligence of the "far west" at that period. An 
abridged form of the same expedition, in 12mo. was published in 1807 
by Patrick Gass, one ofthe persons employed in the expedition. — 
This is the earliest definite account we have of the Oregon Territory.. 

11. We may here as well mention the Voyage and exploration of Al- 
exander McKenzie, through the continent of -North America to the Fro- 
zen and Pacific oceans, in the years 1789 and 1793; with an account of 
the rise, progress, and condition of the fur trade at that period. — 
Mackenzie's first voyage, in 1789, was from, fort Chepewyan, latitude 
58.40 north, longitude 110.30 west from Greenwich, at the "Lake of the 
Hills," through a branch ofthe lake to Pearl, or as called by some, Slave* 
river, and down that river and connecting lakes and rivers, a N. N. W. 
course to the ocean, which the party reached July 13th, latitude 69.14 
north, and within the arctic circle, where the sun was seen at that season 
of the year for the whole twenty-four hours in succession^ 'They re- 
turned the route they came and reached Fort Chepewayan, September 
12th, 1739. 

The second voyage was commenced at the same fort, and the party: 
proceeded up Pearl river a west-south west course to its source, and 
with much difficulty pass the mountain range, and enter a river that 
leads them a western course, and partly by water in a birch canoe and 
partly overland, the party reached the Pacific ocean, in latitude 52.20 
worth, on the 23th July. Tfrev returned the same season, alter suffer- 
ing great privations and hardships. These voyages were published in 
Louden, in two volumes, octavo, 1802. 

12. t'c'iu/Lzs Travels, 1807 and 1808, deserve notice, as exhibiting 
candor and a desire to be fair and impartial in his descriptions. 

Christian Kehultz. jun., was from Kngland, and passed through the 
i\dUs of New Vork, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky, and fen a* 



48 



cssee, and the territories of Indiana, Louisiana, Mississippi, and New 
Orleans. He visited Illinois, St. Lou is, the Missouri lead mines, and 
appears to have taken unwearied pains to be correct in his descriptions. 
His travels form a happy contrast with the British tourists in general at 
that period. They are contained in two small duodecimo volumes, 
with maps and plates. The edition before us is New York, 1010. 

13. Travels and adventures in Canada and the Indian Territories, 
between the years 1760 and 1776; by Alexander Henry, Esq. This au- 
thor was engaged in the fur trade, up to the lakes, and to the north-west- 
ern regions, for many years, and in 1309 compiled the work before us 
from his journal. The work was published in New York the same year, 
in one octavo volume, and contains the incidents and adventures in 
which the author was engaged, observations on the geography and natu- 
ral history of the country he visited, with views of the society and 
manners of the Indians. There is much interesting matter in this volume. 

14. Harmon's Journal of Voyages and Travels in the Interior of North 
America. The author was a native of New England, and in 1800, 
when his Journal commences, he became a clerk in the "North -West 
Company," as the firm of McTavish, Frobisher, & Co. was styled, and 
at the expiration of seven year's service became a partner. His *• Jour- 
nal'' was continuedto August, 1809, whep he returned to Vermont. It 
was prepared for the press by the llev. Daniel Ilaskel, and published at 
Andover, Mass., 1820. The region of country he visited lay between 
the 47th and 58lh degrees of north latitude, and extending from 
Montreal nearly to the Pacific ocean. He gives a particular description 
of the face of the country, the manners, customs, laws and religion of the 
Indians and other inhabitants, with a copious vocabulary of the lan- 
guages of the Knisteneux, Tacully, and other tribes. 

15. Volney's View of the Soil and Climate of the United States of 
America. C. F. Volney resided and traveled in the United States and 
territories from 1795 to 1798, and penetrated into almost every portion. 
He speculates and philosophizes extensively upon the geology, climate, 
winds, and other meteorological phenomena, the solar and lunar influ- 
ence on the winds, diseases, &c. He also describes and speculates 
about the French colonies on the Wabash, which he visited, and the 
American Indians. This work was published in France after his return 
and translated by C. B. Brown, and republished in Philadelphia in 1804. 
in one volume 8vo. 

16. The Expeditions of General Z. M. Pike, are contained in an ocr 
tavo volume, accompanied by an atlas, and published in Philadelphia. 
1810. General Pike's first expedition was to the sources of the Missis- 
sippi in 1805 and 1806. 

His second expedition was in 18G6 and 1807, up the Missouri river 
and, through the interior of Upper Louisiana, to the sources of the Platte 
and Arkansas rivers. The party, without knowing it, got into the province 
of New Mexico, was roughly treated by the government, and alter being 
marched a long distance into the interior, at last obtained their liberty 
and returned to the United States. 

17. The Life and Times of General James Wilkinson," in three vol- 
umes, 8vo., should not be overlooked as a source of historical informa- 
tion of the west. 

18. Adventures on the Columbia river; by Ross Cox. Mr. Cox was 
connected with ths expedition sent out by John Jacob Astor, cf New York 



/ 



49 



in 1811; for the establishment of Astoria and in the prosecution of the 
fur trade; and after the failure of the Astor enterprise, he united with the 
"North-west company," and continued in the Oregon country till 1817. 
These "Adventures" were published in an octavo volume in New York, 
1832, and contain much valuable information on the soil, climate, and 
other facts of the Oregon. 

In connection with this work, we name Irving's Astoria, in two vol- 
umes, 8vo., and the Rocky Mountains, or Scenes, Incidents, and Ad- 
ventures in the Far West, compiled by VV. Irving from the Journal of 
captain Bonneville, in two volumes. To these we add, Memoir, Histori- 
cal and Political, on the North-west coast of America and the Adjacent 
Territories; by Robert Greenhow, a United States Senate document, 
February 10th, 1840. A Geographical Sketch of Oregon, by Hall 
J. Kelly; Journal of the Rev. Samuel Parker, in 1835, 36, and 37; and 
J. K. Townsend's Narrative of a Journey, &c, as furnishing complete 
and specific information of the Oregon territory. 

19. Travels throughout the Interior of the United States and Mexico, 
from 1808 to 1816; by Henry Ker. Mr. Ker was born in Boston, Mass., 
but was taken by his father to England when a boy and raised in Lon- 
don. His travels commenced at Charleston, South Carolina, from whence 
he proceeds across the country to the Frenoh Broad river, and down the 
Tennessee to the Ohio and Mississippi; from thence to New Orleans, 
thence to the West Indies and back to New Orleans, ascends Red river 
to Nachitoches, and thence through the Indian country to Mexico. On 
returning through Texas, then a wilderness, the author falls into the 
hands of a band of robbers, is confined in a cave, his faithful 
servant [Edom] is killed, and his mules and property taken. He gains 
the good will of the captain, who liberates him in the night, and furnish- 
es mm with a purse of gold and a horse, and he reaches Nachitoches. — 
From thence he proceeds through the Opelousas Attakapas regions to 
the Chickasaw country, and reaches Nashville, Tenn.; thence to Knox- 
ville, and circuitous route through Western Virginia into Kentucky, and 
visited Lexington and Frankfort; then south through Alabama and the 
Choctaw country to Mobile, Florida, and round through Georgia and the 
Atlantic states to New Jersey, where he prepared his "Travels" for the 
pres3. The author says, "My propensity for a wandering life was very 
strong," of which we think he has furnished ample proofs. 

20. Drake's Lives of the Indians, is a curious and interesting book, 
and should be in the possesssion of every one who desires to be acquaint- 
ed with Indian Biography. 

21. Bradbury's Travels in the Interior of America, in 1809, '10, and 
'I t, contain much scientific and general information of Ohio, Kentucky, 
Tennessee, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri and other western regions. — 
Bradbury was an Englishman, a naturalist, and deserves credit for hi* 
candor and impartiality, 

Michaux [the elder and younger] and Nuttall, as naturalists and ex- 
plorers, have done much to develop the botany and other branches of 
natural history in the western valley. 

22. H. R. Schoolcraft, Esq., has been an industrious and successful 
laborer in developing the resources of the great West aud adding to its 
stock of science and literature. 

Ilia first work, published in 1819, is "A view of the Lead Mines of Mis- 
H s 4 



50 



xouri," in an octavo volume. The work, however, includes "observa- 
tions on the mineralogy, geology, geography, antiquities, soil, climate, 
population, and productions of Missouri, Arkans, and other sections of 
the western country." 

His Narrative of an Exploring expedition through the Upper Missis- 
sippi to the itasca Lake, its extreme source, in 1832. is a valuable work. 
His Algic Researches, or Tales arid Legends of the Ogibeway Indians, 
are interesting and curious volumes. 

23. Darby's View of the United States, should not be overlooked in 
our western historical 'collections. 

24. Birbeck's Letters from Illinois in 1817, is a little work of some 
interest. But as many other European travelers at that period appear to 
have been delighted in giving frightful exaggerations of the mconvtriiences. 
of Western Americans, IVlr. Birbeck evidently erred on the other side. — 
Every thing in Illinois and the West appeared to him in the fairest col- 
ors and the most fl Altering aspect. 

25. Beck's Gazetteer of Illinois and, Missouri, compiled in 1819 and 
1820, while the author was a resident at St. Louis, is an invaluable 
work of the kind, shows great research and patient industry in collecting 
a vast amount of original matter, and arranging it in a neat and scienti- 
fic manner. 

26. James Hall, Esq., is vvjll known as an able and successful labor- 
er in the field of western literature. His "Letters from the West," pub- 
lished some twenty or twenty-five years since in the Port Folio are 
sprightly, graphic, and original. As the conductor and editor of the 
"Illinois," and subsequently styled "Western Monthly Magazine," with 
"Legends," "Sketches of the West," and other works, he is too well 
known as a successful western writer to need further remark in this- 
place. 

27. Recollections of the Last Ten Years, passed in Occasional .Res- 
idences and Journeyings in the Valley of the Mississippi, By Timothy 
Flint, was first published in 1826, and is a sprightly and valuable work 
of the kind. His "History and Geography of the Western Valley," 
appeared in 1832. These and other works of Mr. Flint are both val- 
uable and indispensable to a library of western literature. 

28. The Expeditions of Major S. H. Long and his. Corps, the first up 
the Missouri, and the next up the Mississippi, the St. Peter's. Lake 
Winnepeck, and to the Red river colony of the north, with the notes of 
Messrs. Say, Keating, and Calhoun, contain a large amount of inform- 
ation concerning the regions they explored. 

29. Tanner's Narrative, by Dr. Edwin James, is an interesting ac- 
count of the captivity and adventures of John Tanner during thirty vears K 
residence among the Ogibeway and other Indians in the interior of North 
America. 

30. The H[story of Louisiana from the Earliest Period, by Francois 
Xavier Martyh. in two volumes, 8vo., 1827, is an elaborate and sterling 
work. The reader will find in this work nearly every fact, pertaining to 
the early history of Canada and the American colonies, with much per- 
taining to the revolutions and changes of Europe, as well as the events 
of this western vai'ey. 

31. History oft i. Late War in the Western Country; by Robert B. 
McAffee. — '[ his volume professes to contain a full account of all. the 
transactions in the western valley, Irom the commencement of hostilities 



51 



at Tippecanoe to the termination of the contest at New Orleans on the 
return of peace; 534 pp. 8vo., Lexington, Kentucky, 181C. 

32. A collection of some of the most interesting Narratives of Indian 
Warfare in the West; by Samuel Metcalf. This collection contains 
Boon's Narrative, and the Expeditions of general Harmar, Scott, Wil- 
kinson, St. Clair and Wayne, with an account of manners, customs, tra- 
ditions, superstitions and wars of the Indians; 270 pp., 8vo., Lexington, 
Ky., 1821. 

33. Incidents of Border Life, is a compilation of Indian adventure, ac- 
counts of battles, skirmishes and personal encounters with the Indians, 
together with the history of various captivities and escapes, and a great 
variety of historical sketches of the north-west. It is an octavo volume 
of more than five hundred pages, and well worth the attention of those 
who delight in exploring our frontier history. 

34. Sketches of Western Adventure, containing an account of the most 
interesting incidents connected with the settlement of the west, from 1775 
to 1791, by John A M'Clung, Maysville, Ky., 1832. This work contains 
substantially the same matter as is found in the "incidents." 

35. Notes on the Settlement and Indian Wars of the Western parfs of 
Virginia and Pennsylvania, from the year 1763 until the year 1783, in- 
clusive; together with a view of the state of society and manners of the 
first settlers of the western country; by Dr. Joseph Doddridge; 12mo., 
Wellsburgh, Va., 1824. This is a curious and interesting little vol- 
ume, especially as giving a most graphic picture of the "state of society 
and manners of the first settlers of the western country." 

36. Notes on the State of Virginia; by Thomas Jefferson, written in 
1781 and 1782, should be consulted in connexion with western history. 
The edition before us is a small duodecimo; Boston, 1832. It has an 
appendix relative to the alledged murder of the family of Logan by Colo- 
nel Cresap. 



52 



Wisconsin was admitted into the Union on the third day of March, 
1847; and the first public meeting in Minnesota Territory, was held at 
.Stillwater, on the 5th day of August, 1843, to consider whether the laws 
of the Territory of Wisconsir were in force beyond the limits of that 
State. Jonathan E. McKusick presided at this meeting, and William 
llolcombe acted as the secretary. M. S. Wilkinson, Dr. Carli, David 
Lambert, Jacob Fisher, and others, were present. Sundry resolutions 
were adopted, and the letter of Hon. John Catlin, who had been Secreta- 
ry of the Territory of Wisconsin, was read, as follows: 

Madison, August, 22, 1843. 

Hon. Wm. Holcomee — Dear Sir: — 

I take the liberty to write you briefly for the purpose of ascertaining 
what the citizens of the present Territory of Wisconsin desire in rela- 
tion to the organization of a Territorial Government. Congress adjourn- 
ed on the 14th inst., without taking any steps to organize the Territory 
of Minnesota, or of amending the act of 1836, organizing Wisconsin, so 
that the present government could be successfully continued. 

I have given Mr. Bowron, by whom I send this, a copy of Mr. Bu- 
chanan's opinion, by which he gives it as his opinion that the laws of 
Wisconsin are in force in your Territory ; and if the laws are in force. 1 
think it is equally clear that the officers necessary to carry out those lawi 
are still in office. After the organization of the State of Michigan, bur 
before her admission, Gen. G. W. Jones was elected by the Territory of 
Michigan, (now State of Wisconsin,) and was allowed to take his sear. 

It is my opinion that if your people were to elect a delegate this fall, 
he would be allowed to take his seat in December, and then a govern- 
ment might be fully organized; and unless a delegate is elected and 
sent on, i do not believe a government will be organized for several 
years. You are aware of the difficulty which has prevented the organi- 
zation of Oregon for two years past ; and the same difficulty will prevent 
the organization of Minnesota. If Mr. Tweedy were to resign, (and he 
would if requested,) I do not see anything to prevent my issuing a proc- 
lamation for an election to fill the vacancy, as the acting Governor ; but 
1 should not like to do so unless the people would act under it and hold 
the election. 

If a Delegate was elected by color of law, Congress never would in- 
quire into the legality of the election. 

It is the opinion of most all this way that the government of the Terri- 
tory of Wisconsin still continues, although it is nearly inoperative, for 
want of a court and legislature. 

1 write in haste, and have not time to state further the reasons which 
lead me to the conclusion that the Territorial Government is still in be- 
ing ; but you can confer with Mr. Bowron, who, I believe, is in posses- 
sion of the views and opinions entertained here on the subject. 

I shall be pleased to hear from you at your earliest convenience. 
Yours very respectfully, 

JOHN CATLIN. 
Judge Irvine, Mr. Martin, Gen. Jones, H. N. Wells, A. D. Smith. 
Chas. 11. Larabee, J. G. Knapp, and many others, entertain the opinion 
that the Territorial Government of Wisconsin was not abolished by the 
admission of the State of Wisconsin, but is still iu being in that part i>f 



53 



the former Territory not included within the limits of the State. Gov. 
Dewey told me he had no doubt on the subject. 

The following is the opinion of the Hon. James Buchanan, Secretary 
of State, referred to in Mr. Catlin's letter, to wit: 

"The question is, whether the laws of the Territory of Wisconsin still 
remain in force in that portion of it now beyond the limits ot Wisconsin. 
I am clearlv of opinion that these laws are still in force over the territory 
not embraced within the limits of the State. It cannot well be supposed 
that Congress, by admitting the State of Wisconsin into the Union, in- 
tended to deprive the citizens of the United States, beyond its limits, of 
the protection of existing laws; and there is nothing in their legislation 
from which any such inference can be drawn. The difficult question is, 
what officers still remain to carry those laws into execution. It is clear 
to my mind that all the local officers residing in counties without the 
the State line, such as judges of probate, sheriffs, justices of the peace, 
and constables, may exercise their appropriate functions as heretofore. 
Whether the general officers, such as Governor, Secretary, and Judges, 
appointed for the whole of the lormer Territory, are authorized to per- 
form their duties within what remains of it, presents a question of greater 
difficulty, on which I express no opinion. Whatever may be the correct 
decision of this question, immediate legislation is required ; because it 
is very certain that Congress will never consent to maintain the machin- 
ery provided for the government of the entire Territory, merely for the> 
purpose of governing the twenty-nve hundred or three thousand inhab- 
itants who reside beyond the limits of the State." 

A second public meeting took place agreeably to the following notice, 
to wit : 

NOTICE. 

We the undersigned, citizens of Minnesota Territory, impressed with 
the necessity of taking measures to secure an early Territorial organiza- 
tion, and that those measures should be taken by the people with unity 
of action, respectfully recommend that the people of the several settle- 
ments in the proposed Territory appoint delegates to meet in convention 
at Stillwater, on the 26th day of August next, to adopt the necessary 
steps for that purpose. 

Stillwater, Aug. 4, 1848. 

[Signed.] Louis Roberts, Jacob Fisher, 

H.H.Sibley, John Collier, 

Jno. McKusick, Jos. R. Brown, 
M. S. Wilkinson, W. Holcombe, 
Anson Northrop, H. L. Moss, 
C. Carli, S. Nelson, 

Jno. R. Brewster, Franklin Steele, 
H. K. McKinstry, P. A. R. Brace, 
Jas. D. McComb, Horace Jacobs, 
J. E. McKusick. 
This meeting was temporarily organized by calling M. S. Wilkinson to 
the chair, and appointing David Lambert Secretary. Afterwards, upon 
the motion of Jos. R. Brown, it was fully organized by the election of 
Samuel Burkleo, President, Robert Kennedy, Joshua L. Taylor. Vice 
Presidents, William Holoombe, David Lambert, Secretaries. 

Messrs. Joseph R. Brown, Calvin F. Sealy, H. II. Sibley, S. Nelson, 
M. S. Wilkinson, H. Jackson, and II. L. Moss, were appointed a com- 



54 



mittee to draft a memorial to Congress for the early organization of th& 
Territory of Minnesota. 

Various resolutions were adopted by the meeting. One, that the 
thanks of the meeting be tendered to Benjamin H. Cheever, for his ex- 
ertions at Washington City, the previous winter, to procure the passage 
of a bill for the organization of the Territory of Minnesota. A resolution 
was adopted, that the Delegate be requested to cause the orthography of 
Minnesota (when the organization of the Territory shall be effected,) to 
be according to that used in this resolution. 

Hon. H. H. Sibley was elected a delegate to visit Washington Citv 
during the session of Congress then next ensuing, to represent the inte- 
rests of the proposed Territory, and to urge an immediate organization of 
the same. Afterwards, Mr. Catlin, the former Secretary of Wisconsin 
Territory, issued his proclamation as ex-officio Governor, ordering an 
election for a delegate to the Congress of the United States. Said elec- 
tion was accordingly held on the 30lh day of October, 1848. Hon. H. 
II. Sibley bei^g elected the delegate, attended the session of Congress of 
. 1848-9 as such, and after the adjournment thereof, published an address 
to the people of Minnesota Territory, from which we extract. Mr. Sib- 
ley says in that address : 

I arrived in Washington two days before Congress convened, and I 
soon became convinced that my admission as Delegate was extremely 
uncertain, in fact I may say absolutely improbable. My credentials wen. 
presented on the first day of the session by ihe Hon. James Wilson, t 
New Hampshire, in whose hands they were placed, because he had fo 
merly resided in Iowa, and might be supposed to be better informed, 
to our situation and geographical position, than any other member, 
though the case was by him set forth in a clear and strong light, an 
jection was raised to my admission, and my claim was referred to l 
committee on elections, with instructions to examine and report thereon. 
I will not enter into a detail of the mortifications and vexatious delays to 
which I was subjected from that time until the question was decided, six 
weeks after. Although permitted through courtesy to occupy a seat in 
the House, t was allowed none of the privileges of a Delegate, and in- 
deed I was little more than a lobby member. Meanwhile, my claim was 
resisted by bitter pertinacity by -certain individuals of the committee, par- 
ticularly by the Hon. Mr. Boyden, of North Carolina, who made a long 
and labored argument against my right to a seat, and ridiculed the pre- 
tension that a Territorial organization still existed in the country north 
and west of the State of Wisconsin. I made a reply before the commit- 
tee, the substance of which will be found appended to this address. — 
You can judge whether your rights were therein properly sustained and 
defended. Finally, the majority of the committee reported in my favor, 
and the minority presented a strong counter protest. On the 15th Jan- 
uary, the subject was brought before the House, and the resolution in- 
troduced by the majority of the committee was adopted by a strong vote, 
which admitted me to the full enjoyment of the privileges of a Delegate. 
I should have mentioned that my argument, in answer to the speech of 
Mr. Boyden was made the basis of the report of the committee on elec- 
tions, a copy having been furnished by me to the Chairman at his re-quest. 

Notwithstanding the decision of the House of Representatives, which 
recognized me as the Representative of Wisconsin Territory, it was pub- 
licly stated by many members who had voted for my reception, that they 



65 



did not intend thereby to admit the existence of an organization there, 
but had been actuated merely by m .tives of courtesy. This fact was 
made evident but a few days subsequently, when one of my opponents, 
being determined to test the question, moved to add an item to the gen- 
eral appropriation bill for delraying the expenses of Wisconsin Territory 
for the ensuing year, which motion was negatived by a large majority. — 
The House was then taunted with having admitted a Delegate to repre- 
sent a Territory which had in reality no legal existence. 

The g.-eat object to which I turned my attention was the bill for the or- 
ganization of Minnesota Territory. I was kindly allowed, by the com- 
mittee on Territories of the Senate, to change certain provisions of the 
bill, so as to meet the wishes of my constituents, and but little difficulty 
was experienced in procuring its passage by that body. But with the 
House the case was far different. The bill was there most violently op- 
posed. The committee on Territories had reported amendments to the 
Senate bill, changing the boundary of Minnesota, and making the act to 
take effect on the 10th ol March, instead of the day of its passage, so as 
to preclude the administration of Mr. Polk from making the appoint- 
ments. I was averse to these changes, because we had already suffic- 
ient territory, without extending our boundary to the Missouri river; and 
as to the appointments. 1 stated that Mr. Polk would only exercise the 
right to nominate two or three ofthe officers, and that under any circum- 
stances the proposed amendment was. to my view, a breach of delicacy 
and propriety; but in both points I was over-ruled. 

An effort was made, in committee, to append the Wilrnot Proviso to 
the Territorial bill; but this t resisted, as 1 determined, so far as it was 
in my power, not to allow it to be clogged by a provision wholly super- 
fluous, as the introduction of slavery was prohibited on the east of the 
Mississippi by the ordinance of 1787, and on the west of that river, by 
the act of 1819. establishing the Missouri line. The proposition was 
therefore voted down before the bill was reported to the House, but was 
brought in as an amendment by the minority ofthe committee, and was 
only kept from being adopted, and producing consequently a fierce and 
angry discussion, which would have resulted in the loss of the bill, by 
my moving and refusing to withdraw the previous question, which cut 
off all amendments. On the 2'2d of February, 1 moved that the rules of 
the House be suspended to enable me to submit a motion, that the cam- 
mitiee of the whole he discharged from the further consideration of the bill 
for the organization of Minnesota Territory, so as to put it upon its pas- 
sage. The rules were suspended by a vote of 10C t) 16, and the strug- 
gle then commenced upon my moving the previous question. 1 turned 
a deaf ear to all entreaties to withdraw it. and I thereby incurred the ire 
of those who were inimical to the bill. But after an attempt to lay it on 
the table, or in other words, to defeat it, which was unsuccessful, it was 
finally ordered to a third reading, and all opposition to it ceased. It was 
finally passed on the 2d of March, and sent to the Senate, which body 
refused to concur in the House amendment, changing the date when the 
bill was to take effect. By great exertion on the part of my friends and 
■myself, the House was at length persuaded to recede from its amend- 
ment, and the bill was passed and became a law on the 3d of March, 
•1849." 

TJie removal of the Land Office to Stillwater, was only effected after 



56 



much delay and difficulty, as a remonstrance had been made by the 
members of the Wisconsin Legislature, and sent to Senator Walker, 
against its being removed out of the limits of the State. This obstacle 
was eventually surmounted by the establishment of an additional Land 
District in Wisconsin, the location of which office has been made at Wil- 
low river. A weekly mail has been granted us by the Postmaster Gene- 
ral, at my earnest and repeated solicitation. 1 was aided in obtaining 
this grant by the gentlemen composing the Iowa and Wisconsin delega- 
tions. 

I offered a resolution in the House, which v/as adopted, to instruct the 
Committee on the Post Office to inquire into the expediency of establish- 
ing a post route from Fort Snelling to Fort Gaines, also to instruct tba 
Committee of Indian Affairs to inquire into the expediency of extending 
the laws of the United States over the Northwest tribes, so as to make 
all amenable to the proper tribunals, and thereby put a stop to the mur- 
ders and other crimes habitually perpetrated among them. I also drevy 
up a bill which was presented in the Senate by Hon. George W. Jones, 
and in the House by Hon. Robert Smith, appropriating & 12,000 for the 
construction of a road from the St. Louis river of Lake Superior, to St. 
Paul and to Point Douglass via the Marine Mills and Stillwater. '1 hero 
was not sufficient time to push these measures through Congress at this 
short session; but they will doubtless be effected next winter, as 1 do not 
apprehend any difficulty will be thrown in the way of their passage. — 
Much business appertaining to individuals and to private claims have 
also been entrusted to me, and I have given it as great a share of my at- 
tention as other and more important duties would permit. 

Having been furnished with a power of attorney, signed by a largtt 
number of Sioux mixed bloods, to dispose of their lands at Lake Pepin, 
I waited upon the Secretary of War and Commissioner of Indian Affairs 
repeatedly, with a hope of procuring their concurrence in the furtherance 
of this object. It was finally decided by the former, that as a change of 
Administration was so soon to take place, it would not be proper for him 
to enter into any negotiations with me; and he likewise objected, that a« 
many of the signatures were in the same hand writing and only witnessed 
by two persons, that the letter of attorney would not be considered valid in 
law. I then made the attempt to procure an item to be appended to the 
General Appropriation Bill, for a sufficient sum to defray the expenses of 
making- a treaty with the owners of the Lake Pepin tract, and for negotia- 
ting a general treaty with the Sioux Indians, 

In the first place, I assert as a proposition which cannot be contradict- 
ed; that your Delegate would not have been admitted to a seat if he had 
appeared here as ejected by a party, and that his defeat would have in- 
volved the failure of the Minnesota bill, and necessarily of other import- 
ant projects which were committed solely to his care. I do not make 
this declaration in any self-gratulation or conceit. There are other* 
among you, who, with the same advantages- and the same means, would 
have performed as much as I have done. But I refer to the fact to illus- 
trate the wisdom of your determination to draw no party lines at the lata 
election. Chosen by the people without regard to the distinctions of Whig 
or Democrat, my course here has been shaped in exact accordance with 
that determination. My rule was to keep my ear^ open and my moutli 



57 



shut, whenever questions were discussed of a party character, or other 
matters not appertaining in a*;y way to my own region of country. 

You are all aware that 1 appeared before the people as a candidate[op- 
posed to drawing party lines. I believed then and 1 believe now, that no 
such distinctions should be made in a Territory, the Delegate of which 
has no vote, and whose policy is to make himself popular with all parties. 
When the time comes, be it sooner, or later, that we shall have a popula- 
tion sufficient to justify us in looking forward to our admission into tht* 
Union at an early day, then, in my view, will be the proper period to 
mould the political complexion of the State. My own opinions on all 
points ot national policy, are as distinct and well-defined as those of any 
other man. 

jMinnesota now occupies no unenviable position. The Government- 
granted us, secures us all in the full possession of privileges almost if not 
fully equal to those enjoyed by the people of the states. With a Legis- 
lative Council elected from among our own citizens, our own judicial 
tribunals, with a large appropriation for the construction of public build- 
ings, and for a public library, with ample provision for defraying the ex- 
penses of the Territorial Government, and with the right of representa - 
tion in the Halls of Congress, surely we can have no cause of complaint 
so far as our political situation is concerned. It is for ourselves by a 
wise, careful, and practical legislation, and by the improving the advan- 
tages we possess, to keep inviolate the public faith, and to hasten trio 
time when the star of Minnesota, which now but twinkles in the political 
tirmament, shall shine brilliantly in the constellation of our confederated 
States. 



/ 



SPEECH 



HENRY E SIBLEY, OF MINNESOTA, 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON FLECTIONS OF TIJE HOUSE OF 
REPRESENTATIVES. 



DELIVERED DECEMBER 22, 1818. 



Mr. CHAIRM AN: Having been elected by the people of Wisconsin 
Territory to represent their interests, as a Delegate in the Congress of 
the United States. 1 should consider myself'as recreant to the trust reposed 
in me, by those who have honored me with their confidence, did I not take 
every proper means to secure my seat, and be thus placed in a position 
where I may render some service to my constituents. No question has 
been, or can be raised, with regard to the legality of the election. The 
certificate of the acting Governor is prima facie evidence of that fact. — 
It remains then only to show, if possible, that the residuum of Wisconsin 
Territory, alter the admission of the State, remained in the possession 
of the same rights and immunities which were secured to the people of 
the whole Territory by the organic law. In doing this I shall be as 
brief as the nature of the case will admit; but being convinced that a 
favorable repor! from your honorable committee is vitally import- 
ant, I must be permitted to present ail the facts, bearing upon the case, 
and sustain by such arguments as I may, based upon the facts, the posi- 
tion assumed by those who sent me here. 

The honorable gentleman from North Carolina, (Mr. Boyden.) at 
your previous meeting; attempted to show that the act for the admission 
of the State of Wisconsin, 1 was, ipso facto, a repeal of the organic law of 
the Territory. To support this proposition, he supposed a casein 
which all the population of a Territory should be included within the 
limits of a State, except a few individuals, or one man, who might elect 
one of their number or himself, as a delegate to Congress, and be entitled 
to admission, upon the principle assumed in the present case. Mr. 
Chairman, 1 meet this fairly, by another supposition by no means so im- 
probable. It was seriously contemplated, by a respectable portion of the 
people, to ask Congress to make the Wisconsin river the northern bound- 
ary of the state of that name. If this had been done, some fifteen or 
twenty thousand inhabitants would have been left in precisely the same 
situation in which the present population of Wisconsin Territory now find 
themselves. Would Congress have refused, under such circumstances, 
to receive a Delegate elected by the people, according to the provisions 
«f the organic law? The case supposed is an extreme one. Congress 



59 



has fall power to prevent any abuse of such privileges. But when a large 
portion of a Territory is left without the boundaries of a State, and no 
provision is made for repealing or modifying the organic law, does not 
that very fact, taken in connection with the obligation of a Government 
to afford to all its citizens the protection of law, make it perfectly clear 
that the residuum remains under the full operation of the same organic 
law? To suppose otherwise would be to maintain that a Government 
has the right, at pleasure, to deprive its citizens of all civil rights, a hy- 
pothesis repugnant to the spirit of our institutions and of the age. 

The imprescriptable, inalienable birthright of the subject is laid down 
as one of the national rights of citizenship, of which none can be de- 
prived without their consent. (Paylnfs Phil. B.VI. chap. 3. Judge Ire- 
dell in Tal cot vs. Sanson, 3 Da/l. Rep. 233.) Vattell, in his Law of" 
Nations, B. I. chap. 2, thus lays dov/n the rule: "If a nation is obliged 
to preserve itself, it is no less obliged carefully to preserve all its mem- 
bers." And, again: "The body of a nation cannot then abandon a pro- 
vince, a town, or even a single individual, who is apart of it, unless com- 
pelled to do it by necessity, or indispensably obliged to do it, for the 
strongest reasons, founded on the public safety." 

Having thus shown that the point of international law, as received by 
all civilized countries, is clearly in our f avor, 1 will merely quote a para- 
graph of the ordinance of 1787, as applicable to the country northwest of 
the Ohio river. This guarantees to all the inhabitants of that region the 
^possession of "the benefits ofhabeas corpus, and trial by jury, of a propor- 
tionate representation in the Legislature, and ofjudicial proceedings, ac- 
cording to the course ef the common law. We are a part and parcel of the 
people to whom were secured these blessings, and a decision which 
would deprive us of the right to be repre ented on the floor of Congress 
would virtually annul all these guarantees, and reduce society into its 
original elements. 

1 come now, Mr. Chairman, to the precedents cited in support of 
my claim, and to which the gentleman from North Carolina so strongly 
objects, inasmuch as, in his opinion, they do not cover the present case. 
They are those of Paul Fearing and George YV\. Jones. It is admitted 
that the former, elected as Delegate from the Northwest Territory, appear- 
ed and took his seat months after the passage of the act of Congress ad- 
mitting Ohio into the Union, and before any other new Territorial organ- 
zation had been effected. So far. then, Ohio had a perfect right to send 
a Representative and Senators to Congress. That she did not do so, af- 
fects in no manner, the merits of the question. She only declined, for 
good and sufficient reasons, to exercise her undoubted right. During 
this state of things, Mr. Fearing was in his seat, not as the Representa- 
tive of the sovereign Stable of Ohio, but of the residuum of the Northwest 
Territory. This is a fact beyond contradiction or dispute. If Ohio had 
sent her Representatives, they would have been admitted without question. 
But it is siid that Mr. Fearing's right to a seat was not formally p issed 
upon by the House. But we know that the committee on elections re- 
ported favorably in his case, and the fact that he retained his stat.on until 
the end of the session, is good evidence that the House concurred with 
the Committee in opinion. 

In the case of the Hon. George W. Jones, now a United States Sena- 
tor from Iowa, the circumstances, although not precisely similar, are suf- 
ficiently in .point to give them authority as a precedent. Mr. Jones wag 



60 

elected the delegate from the Territory of Michigan, and the State had 
previously formed a Constitution andsent its Senators and Representatives 
here to demand admission. True, the act of Congress admitting the 
State not having been yet passed, they were not formally received; but it 
is nevertheless equally true that Mr. Jones was elected by the people 
residing out of the limits of the State, and that he represented the inter- 
ests of the residuum only. The inhabitants ofthe State of Michigan took 
no part in the election of that gentleman. Surely, one or the other of 
the above cited cases must be allowed to be an exact precedent, if both 
are not to be so considered. 

Mr. Chairman, the onus probandi must rest upon those who deny the 
existence of a distinct Territorial Government in Wisconsin Territory. 
The fact that the organic law gave to that Territory certain privileges, 
among which was the right to elect a Delegate to Congress, is undenia- 
ble, and it is equally certain that no subsequent action of that body abro- 
gated any portion of that law, or divested the people of any of these priv- 
ileges. The conclusion is not 10 be controverted, that a law of Congress 
creating a temporary Government over a portion of the territory ofthe 
United States, must continue in force, unless repealed by the same leg- 
islative authority. The division of a Territory is not the destruction 
thereof. That portion formed into a State, and admitted as such, has 
commenced a new political existence; but the residuum not being in any 
wise affected thereby, remained under the operation ofthe old law The 
sphere in which each moves is well defined, and there can be no collision 
between them. The very act establishing the Territorial Government of 
Wisconsin, provides that Congress shall have the right to divide it into 
two or more Territories at any time thereafter, if such a step shoud be 
deemed expedient or necessary. It did so virtually by the act admitting 
Wisconsin into the Union. 

The honorable gentleman from North Carolina has fallen into a griev- 
ous error when he asserts that during the first grade of Territorial Gov- 
ernment, that in which the legislative power was vested in the Governcr 
and Judges, the Government has not granted them a Delegate in Con- 
gress ; for Michigan was entitled to and represented by a delegate, years 
before a legislative council was vouchsafed to her. This can be ascer- 
tained by a reference to the Journals of Congress. But, sir, I do nqt 
conceive this question to have any bearing upon the case before you. — 
The people of Wisconsin Territory are not present by their representa- 
tive to argue any question of abstract right ; but to appeal to this com- 
mittee to protect them in the enjoyment of those immunities, which are 
secured to them by the solemn sanctions of law. The Government of 
the United States, when it invited its citizens to emigrate to the Territory 
of Wisconsin by the formation of a temporary government, must have 
intended to act in good faith towards them, by continuing over them the 
provisions ofthe organic law. Sixteen thousand acres of land have 
been purchased, for the most part, by bona fide settlers, the proceeds of 
which have gone into your treasury. Taxed equally with other inhab- 
itants of this Union for the support of the General Government, they are 
certainly entitled to equal privileges. 

Sir, it is a fact that the inhabitants of the region I have the honor li> 
represent, have always heretofore, since the establishment of a Territo- 
rial Government for Wisconsin, participated in the election of a delegate, 
and have enjoyed all the rights and immunities secured to them by the 



m 

organic law. It is equally a fact, that they have a full county organiza- 
tion, and form part of a judicial circuit. Congress was by no means ig- 
norant of the existing state of things, when the State of Wisconsin was 
admitted, for there were lying at that time upon the tables of both Houses, 
petitions signed by hundreds of citizens living north and west of the St. 
Croix river, praying that they might not be included within the limits of the 
the State, but suffered to enjoy trie benefits of the Territorial Government. 
The region north and west of Wisconsin contains an area of more thaii- 
20,000 square miles, with a population of nearly, if not quite, G,000 souls. 
Can a proposition be seriously entertained to disfranchise and outlaw the 
people ? sir, if it is determined that the Territory 1 have come here to rep- 
resent has no claim to such representation on the floor of Congress, then 
will one branch of the law-making power have sanctioned a principle which 
will scatter all the restraints of law in that region to the winds. For 
either the Territorial organization is perfect and complete, or it has been 
entirely abrogated and annulled. The same authority which provides 
for the election of a Delegate, gives the power to choose other officers.. 
AH must stand or fall together. If we have no organization, as is con- 
tended by the honorable gentleman from North Carolina, then have our 
judicial and ministerial officers rendered themselves liable to future pun- 
ishment for a usurpation of power. If a malefactor has been apprehend- 
ed, or a debtor arrested, the officers serving the writ will be visited here- 
after with an action for false imprisonment. Our beautiful country will 
become a place of refuge for depraved and desperate characters from 
the neighboring States. The vast a'nd varied agricultural and commer- 
eial interests of the country will be involved in ruin, and all security for 
life and property will vanish. But, sir, 1 .do not believe that this com - 
mittee will consent to give a decision involving such a train of evils, and 
such utter absurdities. Not a single good reason can be assigned for 
perpetrating so gross an outrage upon several thousand citizens of th« 
United States, as to divest them, at one fell stroke, of all those blessing* 
of a legal jurisdiction which they have hitherto enjoyed, and that without 
any consent or agency of their own. 

Sir, there are certain fixed principles of law which cannot be annulled 
by sophistry, or destroyed by any system of special pleading. By thess 
eternal and immutable maxims, are the duties of Governments &nd theii 
citizens or subjects defined, and their mutual and reciprocal obligations 
are not to be laid aside, or dispensed with by either. The action of all 
popular governments must be of a beneficial character to the governed. 
The one must protect, the other obey. The former is charged with the 
duty of throwing around its citizens the safeguards of law, while they on 
their part are bound to uphold the majesty of that law. Circumstance* 
of extreme danger alone can for a moment absolve either from these im- 
perative obligations. Whence then is derived the power of this govern- 
ment to cast aside any portion of its citizens at will ? Sir, when dis- 
franchisement is visited by despotic governments upon their people, it Is 
to mete out to them the severest punishment which can be inflicted upou 
a community for political offences, short of actual extermination. 

Sir, the case now before you for your action does certainly present 
some novel features. It is the first time since the foundation of this Gov- 
ernment that several thousand citizens of the United States have hf.en 
found supplicating and pleading, by their Representative, that they may 
not be deprived by Congress ot all civil government, and thrust from its 



62 



doors by a forced and constructive interpretation of a law of the land, 
which does not in fact bear even remotely upon the question. Appeals 
and petitions have often been made by those citizens who. having volun- 
tarily removed from within the bounds of a legal jorisdiclion, have been 
desirous that this blessing should be granted them ; but not that what had 
been solemnly secured to them should not be violently withdrawn. Sir, 
the wants and wishes of those who sent mfc here have now no advocate 
un the floor of Congress. These people have emigrated to the remote 
region they now inhabit under many disadvantages. 

They have not been attracted thither by the glitter of inexhaustible 
gold mines, but with the same spirit which has actuated all our pioneern 
of civilization. They have gone there to labor with the axe, the anvil, 
and the plough. They have elected a Delegate, with the full assurance 
that they had a right to do so, and he presents himself here for admission. 
Sir, was this a question in which the consequences would be confined to 
me personally, the honorable members of this Mouse would not find me 
here, day after day, wearying their patience by long appeals and expla- 
nations. But believing as I do, before God, that my case, and the ques- 
tion whether there is any law in the Territory of Wisconsin, are intimate- 
ly and indissolubly blended together, I trust that the House of Represen- 
tatives will, by its decision of the claim before it, establish the principle, 
which shall be as a landmark in all coming time, that citizens of this 
mighty Republic, upon whom the rights and immunities of a civil gov- 
ernment have been once bestowed by an act of Congress, shall not be 
deprived of these without fault or agency of their own, unless under cir- 
cumstance of grave and imperious necessity, involving the safety and. 
well-being of the whole country, 



63; 



C. 



A LIST OF EXECUTIVE AND JUDICIAL OFFICERS OF THE 
TERRITORY OF MINNESOTA, AND THE MEMBERS OF 
THE FIRST LEGISLATURE, OF THE SAME. 



ALEX. RAMSEY, 
C. K*. SMITH, 

A. GOODRICH, 
DAVID COOPER, 

B. B. MEEKER, 
H. L. MOSS, 

A. M. MITCHELL, 



Governor, 
Secretary, 
- Chief Justice, 
Aassociate Justice, 

District Attorney, 
Marshal. 



MEMBERS OF THE FIRST LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY. 



David Olmsted, President of the Council,:, 
Joseph R. Brown, Chief .Clerk, Henry A. Lambert Assistant Clerk. 

Joseph VV. Furbish, Speaker of the House of Representatives* 
Wm. D. Phillips, Chief Clerk, L. B. Waite, Assistant Clerk 



COUNCILLORS. 



James S. N orris, 
Samuel Burk'eo, 

William H. Forbes, 
lames McC. Boal, 
David B. Loorais, 
John Rollins, 
David Olmsted, 
William Sturgis, 
Martin McLeod, 



REPRESENTATIVES. 

Joseph W. Furber, 
James Wells, 
M. S. Wilkinson, 
Sylvanus Trask, 
Mahlon Black, 
Benj. W. Brunson, 
Henry Jackson, 
John J. Dewey, 
Parsons Iv. Johnson, 
Henry F. Setzer, 
Wm. R.Marshall, 
Wm. Dugas,. 
Jeremiah Russell, 
L. A. Babcock, 
Thos. A. Holmes, 
Allen Morrison, 
Alexis Bailley, 
Gideon II . Pond, 



No. of 
district. 



RESIDENCE. 



Cottage Grove, 
Stillwater, 
St. Paul,; 
a 

Marine Mills, * 
Falls of St. Anthony 
Long Prairie, 
Elk river, 
Lac-qui-Parle, 



Cottage Grove, 
Lake Pepin, 
Stillwater, 



St. Paul, 



Snake river, 
Falls of St. Anthony 
Little Canada, 
Crow Wing, 
Sauk Rapids, 



Mendota, 
Oak Grove. 



AGE, 

~~38~ 
45 
33 
38 
32 
41 
27 
28 
36 



36 
46 
30 



Place of Nativi- 
ty. 



25 
42. 



37 
29 

44: 

53 
39 



Maine, 
Delaware, 
Montreal, C. 
Pennsylvania 
Connecticut, 
M aine, 
Vermont, 
Up. Canada, 
Montreal, C. . 



N. IL 

N. Jersey, 

New York, 
n it 

Ohio, 

Michigan, 

Virginia, 

New York, 

Vermont, 

Missouri, 

L. Canada, 

Vermont, 
Pennsylvania 

Michigan, 
Connecticut, 



64 

EXECUTIVE AND JUDICIAL OFFICERS OF THE TERRITORY 
OF MINNESOTA. 



ALEX. RAMSEY, 
C. K. SMITH, 

A. GOODRICH, - 
DAVID COOPER, 

B. B. MEEKER, - 
II. L. MOSS, - 

A. M. MITCHELL, 
H. H. SIBLEY, 
L. A. BABCOCK, - 
.JONATHAN E. McKUSICK, 
CALVIN A. TUTTLE, - 
CHARLES CAVILLER, 
JAMES McC. BOA L, 



- Governor, 
r Secretary, 
Chief Justice, 
Associate Justic-, 

District Attorney 
- Ma^ghai' 
Delegate to Congress ' 
Attorney General lor the Territory] 
Auditor for the Territory ' 
Treasurer for the Territory 
Territorial Librarian' 
Adjutant General of the Territory ' 



MEMBERS OF THE SECOND LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY: 



David B. Loomis, President of tho Council. M. E. Ames, Speaker of the House of Rep 



Joseph R. Brown, Secretary, 
J. D. Crittenden, Assistant Secretary , 
H. L. Sellors, Sergcant-at-Arms, 
Warren Atkinson, Messenger, 
Win. Harrington, Fireman. 



Bushrod W. Lott, Chief Cierk, 
Taylor Dudley, Assistant Clerk, 
William Cove, Sergeant- at -Arms* 
E. F. Lewis, Messenger, 
Edward Sloan, Fireman. 



COUNCILLORS. 


No. of 

d i st r i c t • 


James Norris, 


i 


Samuel Burkleo, 


2 


William H. Forbes, 




James McC. Boal, 




David B. Loomis, 


4 


John Rollins, 


5 


David Olmsted, 


6 


William Sturgis, 




Martin McLeod, 




REPRESENTATIVES. 




James Wells, 


1 


John A. Ford, 




M. E. Ames, 


2 


Sylvanus Trask, 




Jesse Taylor, 


u 


B. W. Brunsan, 


3 


J. C. Ramsey, 


tt 


Edmund Rice, 


tt 


II. L. Tilden, 


It 


John D. Ludden, 


4 


John VV. North, 


5 


Edward Patch, 


tt 


8. B. Oi instead, 


6 


W. W. Warren, 


tt 


D. T. Sloan, 


(C 


David Oilman, 


<( 


Alex. FarribauU, 


7 


W. H. Randall, 


it 



RESIDENCE. 



Cottage Grove, 
Stillwater, 
St. Paul, 



Marine Mills, 
Falls of St. Anthony, 
Long Prairie, 
Elk River, 
Lac-qui-Parie, 



Lake Pepin, 
Red Rock, 
Stillwater, 



St. Paul, 



Marine Mills, 
Falls of St. Anthony, 

it 1 

Kel'e Prairie, 
Gull Lake, 
Little Rock, 
Watab, 
Mendotk, 
Fori Snelling, 



AGE. 


Place »>t Nativi- 
ty « 


QG 


AJ ain e, 


46 


Delaware, < 


35 


Montreal, C. 


39 


Pennsylvania 


33 


Connecticut. 


42 


Maine, 


23 


Vermont, 


32 


Up. Canada, 


3G 


Montreal, C. 


47 


N. Jersey, 


38 


New York, 


30 


Vermont, 


30 


New York, 


45 


Kentucky, 


26 


Michigan. 


29 


Pennsylvania 


30 


Vpmont, 


32 


Connecticut. 


32 


Mass. . 


35 


New York, 


27 


tt tt 


3C 


tt tt 


26 


L'k Superior,. 


36 


New York, 


39 




46 


MinnesotcT 


27 


Vermont. 



66 



titles of acts, joint resolutions and memorials, 
Passed at the first session of the first legis- 
lative ASSEMBLY OF MINNESOTA. 

1. An act for the relief of John Morgan. 

%. An act to dissolve the marriage contract between Stanislaus Belan- 
ski and iVJary Belanskl. 

3. An act declaring the time at which the several acts passed at the 
.present session of the Assembly shall t ike effect. 

4. An act to authorize the printing of certain laws in the several news- 
papers of the Territory. 

5. An act to incorporate the Historical Society of Minnesota. 

6. An act granting a enactor to Elam Greyly, his heirs, &c, to con- 
struct and maintain a dam across Snake river, near the mouth of Cross 
lake. 

7. An act for the relief of B. W. Lot! and P. P. Bishop. 

8. An act to provide against the traffic ;n ardent spirits with the Indians. 

9. An act granting to Franklin Steele the right to establish and main- 
tain a ferry across tiie Mississippi river. 

10. An aet granting a divorce to Louis Laramie from Wa-kan-ye-ke- 
win, his wife. 

12. An act for the relief of Charles M. Berg. 

12. An act organizing a board of county commissioners in each coun- 
ty in this Territory. 

13. An act regulating grocery licences. 

14. An act providing for laving out a Territorial road from Rum river 
to Crow Wing. 

15. An act fixing the time of the annua] meeting of the Legislative 
Assembly. 

16. An act providing for the erectiois of certain counties therein nam- 
ed, and for other purposes. 

17. An act to locate a Territorial road from Point Douglass to St. Paul. 

18. An act for laying out a Territorial road from Stillwater to the mouth 
of Rum river. 

19. An act authorizing the Governor to issue his proclamation for the 
holding of a court in the county of Wabashaw, and for other purposes. 

2 J. An act to amend an act entitled 46 An act concerning the time of 
■commencing actions*" 

21. An act authorizing the election of Sheriffs and defining their duties. 

22. An act to incorporate the Minnesota Mutual Fire Insurance 
Company. 

23. An act. to authorize the Registers of Deeds of Ramsey and Benton 
oouimes to procure certain copies of records in the office of the Remo- 
ter of Deeds of Washington county. 

24. An act to locate a Territorial road from the town of St. Paul tt> 
Little Canada. » 

25. An act fixing the time for holding district courts. 

26. An act concerning courts of record. 

27. An act concerning justices of the peace, and the action of forcible 
-entry and detainer. 

23. An act to incorporate the St. Paul and St. Anlhony Plank Road 
Company. 

H s 5 



GG 



2.9. An act to amend an act entitled " An act to providethe means to 
pay the public debt of the territory, and for other purposes." 

30. An act to incorporate the town of &t. Paul, in the county of 

Ramsey. 

31.. An act to establish and. maintain common schools. 

32. An act to regulate the public printing and binding. 

33. An act to authorize the election of county treasurers, and to define 
their duties. 

34. An act to provide for the election of Registers of Deeds, and to 
define their dulies and powers. 

3£. An act to incorporate the St. Anthony Library Association. 

36. An act concerning debtors and their securities. 

37. An act to provide lor laying out Territorial roads in the Territory 
of Minnesota, and for other purposes. 

38. An act providing lor the proper observance of the Salbath. 

39. An act concerning seals. 

40. An act to dissolve the marriage contract between Catharine Hath- 
away and her husband. 

41. An act regulating the time of holding general elections, and for 
other purposes. 

42. An act to prescribe the qualitication of voters, and of holding of- 
fice. 

43. An act to provide for the payment of the expenses of the Legisla- 
tive Assembly of the Territory oi Minnesota. 

1. Joint Resolution authorial! g the he< ro tary of the Territory to sub- 
scribe for certain papers, and lot other {.mioses. 

ST. Joint Resolution relative to a donation to the Washington Monu- 
ment Association. 

3. Joint Resolution relative to the enacting clause of the Legislature. 

4. Joint Resolution relative to the removal of the Chippewa Indians 
from the ceded lands within the Territory of Minnesota. 

6. Joint Resolution relative to the Half- Breed lands. 

6. Joi.it Resolution relative to the adjournment of the present Legis- 
lative Assembly. 

7. Joint Resolution relative to the temporary seat of government. 

G. Joint Resolution relative to the number of copies of the laws asal 
jdurnats to be printed. 

9. Joint Resolution relative to the military reservation at Fort Snel!- 
ing. 

10. Joint Resolution relative to election districts for members of the 
Legislative Assembly. 

1. Memorial to Congress relative to the purchase of the Sioux Indian 
lands v/esi of the Mississippi river.. 

2. Memorial to Congress for the improvement of the Mississippi river 
dbove the Falls of St. Anthony. 

%. Memorial to Congress for an appropriation to construct a road from 
Poir.t Douglass to the St. Louis river> 

4, Memorial to Congress for an appropriation to construct a military 
road from Fort Snel.li.tog to t re mouth ci the Sioux river on the MisAdtiri. 

6. A? e mortal to Congress in relation to establishing mail routes there- 
SB tared, and lor other purposes. 

(L Memorial to Congress relative to School Lands. 

7. Memorial to Congress tor addit.ouai mail facilities. 



67 



8. Memorial to Congress for the improvement of certain roads therein 
■amed. 

0. Memorial to Congress for an appropriation to build a road from 
Wabash a\y to Mendota. 

10. Memorial to Congress relative to the Pembina Settlement. 

11. Memorial to Congress relative to a mail route therein named. 

12. Memorial to the Congress of the United States for an appropria- 
tion to build a Territorial prison. 

13. Memorial to Congress for a mail route from the Falls of St. Croix 
Jo Fond du Lac. 

14. Memorial to Congress praying for an amendment to the law grant- 
ing pre-emption rights. 

15. Memorial to Congress relative to the purchase of the Sioux lands 
west of the Mississippi river. 

Office of the Secretaf.y. 

St. Paul, Nov. 10, 1849. 
I hereby certify the foregoing to be a correct list of the Acts. Resolu- 
tions, and Memorials of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of 
Minnesota. 

C. K. SMITH, 

Secretary. 

, ( 

Last year the Laws and Journals of the first Territorial Legislature, 
were published by James M. Goodhue and McLean & Owens. The Laws 
and Journals of the second Territorial Legislature of the Territory of 
Minnesota are to be printed and published by James M. Goodhue, editor 
nnd publisher of the Minnesota Pioneer. 



L. A. Bahcock, M. S. Wilkinson and William Holcombe, are engaged 
(Feb. 185 3.) in assisting the Joint Committee of the Legislative Assem- 
bly of Minnesota now in session, to revise and codify the laws of said 
Territory, they having been employed by said Legislative Assembly for 
tfaat purpose ata compensation of three dollars per day, 



List of ojjlzzrs appointed by the Governor of said Territory. 

William Sturgis, Justice of the Peace, Big Meadow. 
David Gil man, 44 4 4 44 Sauk Rapids. 
Jean B. Farribault, 44 « " Mendota. 
Norman W. Kitson," " ' 44 Pembina. 
IJenry Wilson, Judge of Probate, Stillwater. 
WilHm A. Aitkin, Justice of the Peace, Swan River. 
U. Beam, 44 44 «* Military Reserve. 

Ira Kingsley, * 4 44 44 St. Anthony. 

Albert J arris, 44 " 44 Stillwater. 

1 1 o ra c e K . M c Ki n st ry , * 44 6 ' ** 
Allan Morrison, Notary Public* Benton County. 



68 



Joseph Brown, Commissioner, Benton county. 

William Aitkin, « 

Samuel B. Olmstead, 44 " M 

David Oilman, Sheriff. " 
James Beatty, Notary Public, " 44 
Hiram Bu.key, Commissioner, Washington County. 
Harvey Wilson, Notary Public. 

Benj. B. Brown, Notary Public, St. Anthony, Ramsey Co. 
Wm. R. Marshall,- " *« 
Ellis G. Whitall, 4 

P. P. Bishop, 44 " St. Paul, « 

J. W. Simpson, County Treasurer, M t; 
David Day, Register of Deeds, 44 44 

C. P. V. Lull, Sheriff, 

Lewis Roberts, Commissioner, " M 

Ard Godfrey, 1 St. Anthony, 14 

Alexis Bailley, Justice of the Peace, Wabashaw County, 

James Beatty, Register of Deeds Benton County. 

Henry A. Lambert, Probate Judge, St. Paul. 

John II. Stevens, Notary Public, Dakota County. 

Ira Kingsley, " H St. Anthony. 

J. VV. Heath, Justice of the Peace, Wahnahta County. 

S. C. Hertic, " 44 £• 

Hypolite Depuis, " " 44 Dakota County. 

Charles R. Conway, Notary Public, St. Paul. 

Wm. P. Murry, H " „ 

Fredrick K. Bartlett. 4i W Stillwater. 

Fredierick K. Bartlett, Master in Chancery, 4 ' 

Wm. D. Phillips, Notary Public, St. Paul. 

David Lowry, Assessor, Wahnahta. 

C. S. Hertic, 44 44 

J. W. Heath, 

Andrew Robertson %< Dakota, 

John W. North, Notary Public. St. Anthony. 

A. R. French, Auctioneer. St. Paul. 

Alexis Bailley, Assessor, Wabashaw. 

Charles Reed, » 4 44 

Austin Rocque, 44 44 

Gideon H. Pond, " Dakota. 

Alex. Farribauit, 44 Men dot a. 

Thos. W. Dufneld, Commissioner of Deeds, Philadelphia CtL Pa, 
James Fox, Commissioner ol Deeds, Harrisburg, Dauphin Co- P*. 
F. D. Rigdon, 44 44 Hamilton, Ohio. 

David Heaton, 44 44 Aiiddletown, 44 

Mark P. Taylor, 44 64 Cincinnati, «• 

John McMekan »" 44 Darrton, 44 

John R. Knox. " 46 Greenville, 44 

Thomas Moore, 44 64 Rossviile, 44 

William H. Smith, 44 «« Oxford, 

Charles C. Walker. 4 44 Camden, * 

Wm. Richardson, Notary Public, Ramsey Co. 
William Ogle, Commissioner of Deeds, Philadelphia, Pa, 
Thaddeus K. Wetmorej, •* »' St. Louis, Mo. 



69 



B. S. Elliot, Commissioner of Deeds St. Louis, Mo. 

Charles D. Selding, 44 " Washington. D. C. 

G. H. Hickman. " " Baltimore. Md. 

Edward E. Cowles, 11 M New York City. 

Isaac Pomeroy, 44 44 44 44 

Ahsbel Green, Jr., 44 44 44 44 

John Pitch, 44 44 Troy, New York, 

William M. Fulton, 44 44 Richmond, Va. 

Isaac Atwater, Notary Public, St. Anthony, 

George L. Becker,' 4 '* St. Paul. 

Theodore E. Parker, 44 Stillwater. 

Benjamin Hubbard, Commissioner of Deeds, Eaton, Ohio. 

William II. Hubbard, Notary Public, St. Anthony Falls. 

Richards, Justice of the Peace, Wabashaw Co. 

John Snow, Notary Public. Lake Pepin. 

Charlts VV. Christmas, Notary Public, St. Anthony. 

Wm. II. Woodruff, 44 44 Point Douglass. 



LIST OF OFFICERS OF THE DIFFERENT COUNTIES. 
ELECTED. 

RAMSEY COUNTY. 

Roswell P. Russell J 

Louis Roberts, > Commissioners. 

Benjamin Gervais, y 

Henry A. Lambert, Judge ofProbate. 

Dr. David Dav, Register of Deeds. 

G. P. V. LulC Sheriff. 

J. VV. Simpson, Treasurer. 

Wm. D. Phillips, District Attorney. 

B. W. Brunson. County Surveyor. 

Charles Bozil, Coroner. 

WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

John McKusick, ^ 

Hiram Burkey, V Commissioners. 

Joseph W . Furber, } 

Harvey Wilson, Judge ofProbate. 

John S. Proctor, Register of Deeds. 

Jesse Taylor, Sheriff. 

A. S. Parker, Treasurer. 

F. K. Bartlett, District Attorney. 

BENTON COUNTY. 

James Beatty, ^ 

Joseph Brown, V Commissioners. 

Philip Beaupre, ) 



70 



Frederick Ayer, Judge of Probate. 

Taylor Dudley, Register of Deeds. 

Curtis Bellows, Treasurer. 

David Gillman, Sheriff. 

Asa White, Coroner. 

Isaac Marks, Surveyor of Lumber. 

W. D. Phillips, District Attorney. 



TIME OF HOLDING THE COURTS OF MINNESOTA TERRI- 
TORY. 

1st Judicial District, embracing Ramsey county, and the counties of 
Dakota, Wahnatah and M akato, attached to Ramsey county for Judicial 
purposes. Seat of Justice, St. Paul. Time of holding court, second 
Monday in April and September ol'each year. Chief Justice, Aaron 
Goodrich, presiding.- 

2d Judicial District, Washington county and the counties of Itasca and 
Wabashaw, attached to Washington for Judicial purposes. Seat of 
Justice, Stillwater. Time of holding court, second Monday of May and 
October. Hon. 'David Cooper, presiding. 

3d Judicial District, Benton county, and the county of Pembina attach- 
ed to Benton county for Judicial purposes. Seat of Justice. Sauk Rapids. 
Time of holding court, second Monday of June and November. Hon. 
B. B. Meeker, presiding. 



The following in relation to the courts of the Territory, addressed t* 
the Secretary of this Society, is furnished by the Chief Justice of said 
Courts: 

Sm; — I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 
25th of December, 1850, requesting of me something statistical for this 
society; previous to a compliance with this request, permit me to con- 
gratulate you upon the prosperous condition of this Institution, much of 
which is the result of your untiring energy in faithfully chronicling pass- 
ing events. 

You have left but little for me to say. Minnesota is not regarded by 
the world as classic ground. 1 know of no spot here, which has been 
rendered immortal, either by song or story. We have not the fields of 
Marathon, Pharsalia, or Actium, nor yet the valley of Idumea within our 
borders. None of these, save those to which the Red man points us as 
the "Golgotha" of his fathers. We now daily behold and within but a 
short distance from our dwellings, the smoke of the Indian wigwam, 
curling upward amid nature's forest trees, from the place where it arose 
at a period of antiquity beyond which Indian tradition "runneth not to the 
contrary" On this very spot, which has been for centuries, and aimotfi 
to the present hour 

"Alike their birth and burial place, 
Their cradle and their grave;" 

— our ears are greeted by the "sound of the church going bell," while 



71 



the spires of our churches are glitteriKg in the beams of the morning 
sun. 

If we have not the tattered Banner, born at the head of victorious 
legions in deadly conflict in the wars of freedom ; if we have not the 
sabre, the battle «xe, the triumphant eagio. or the "dyed garments of 
Bozrah ' to deposite in the archives of tin's Society, as mutely eloquent 
remembrances to call up associations of devoted heroes and gallant pa- 
triots; 

"Names that adorn and dignify the so roll, 
Whose leaves contain their country's history." 

— yet we have something to write that will be interesting to the genera- 
tions that are to come alter us. It will be pleasing to them to trace the 
history of a powerful state, back to its present Territorial existence; with 
pride will they point to the record of our time, and say, these are the names 
of our ancestors; this is no '-Delphic'' oracle; this is not a doubtful transla- 
tion of the inscriptions upon the Pyramids upon the plains of Gish, or the 
Statues of Nineveh — "tis history. 

On the nineteenth of March, 1349; President Taylor appointed the 
following named persons Judges of the Supreme Court of the United 
States for this Territory, to wit. 

Aaron Goodrich of Tennessee, Chief Justice. 

David Cooper of Pa. i , . T . 

Bradley B. Meeker of Ky. \ Ass °<» ate Justices ' 
Responsive to the call of the President, the undersigned bid adieu to 
Tennessee and embarked for St. Paul, at which place he arrived on 
board the Steamer Corah, Capt. Gormand, on Sunday the 20th day of 
May, 1849. 

On the Sunday following, his Excellency Governor Alex. Ramsey, 
reached St. Paul; and on the first dav of June, he proclaimed the organi- 
zation of this Territory, recognised its officers, and required obedience: 
to its laws. 

On the eleventh day of June 1849; the Gove/nor issued his second 
proclamation, dividing the Territory into three Judicial Districts, as fol- 
lows: 

The county of St. Croix, constituted the first Disrict, the seat of Jus- 
tice at Stillwater; the first court to be held on the second Monday in Au- 
gust, 184 J. 

The seat of Justice for the second District was at the Falls of St. An- 
thony, the first court to be held on the third Monday in August. 

The seat ot Justice for the third District, was at Mendota, the first 
court to be he'd on the fourth Monday in August. 

The Chief Justice was assigned to hold the courts in the first District. 
Which duty he performed in accordance with the Governor's proclama- 
tion. This was the first court held in this Territory, it remained in ses- 
sion six days; sixty cases upon the Docket. The Clerk ot the court of 
this District is Harvey Wilson. The following is a list of the members 
of the bar, who were in attendance at this court: 

C. K. Smith, H. L. Moss, 

M.S. Wilkinson, A. M. Mitchell, 

VV. D. Phillips, Edmund Rice, 

P. P. Bishop, James Hughes, 

John S. Goodrich, L. A. Babcock, 

John A. Wakefield, 



72 



Judge Meeker was assigned to hold the courts in the second District, 
which duty he performed — there was no cause pending in this court. 

Judge Cooper was assigned to hold (he courts in the third District, 
which duty was performed by him. No cause pending in this court. 

There was at t lis period, fifteen lawyers in the Territory. 

Up to this time we h iva h id two trial* for murder; the accused was in 
one case acquitted by the Jury, and in the other, found guilty of man- 
slaughter, and imprisoned in Fort Snelling for a period of one year. 

Tlie first term of the Supreme Court lor this Territory was held 
at the American House in the Town of St. Paul on Monday the 
fourteenth day of January, 1850. Judges Goodrich and Cooper being 
present. 

There is atthistime, but one Court House in the Territory, ihis is at 
Stillwater. 

Having been specially assigned by Gov. Ramsey, for that purpose, 
the undersigned repaired to Sauk Rapids, in the county of Benton, (this 
place is siluitcd on the left bank of the Mississippi river. 76 miles above 
the Fails of St, Anthony) and on the elev nth day of June. 1850: opened 
and held the first court at that place. There was no business ofimpor* 
lance disposed of at this Term. 

The county of Ramsey now constitutes the first Judicial District. St. 
Paul is the seat of Justice, it is also the capitol of the Territory. The 
clerk of the court, Mr. Humphry, imforms me that there are now ono 
hundred cases upon the Docket. The Chief Justice was assigned by 
an act of the first Territorial Legislature to hold the courts in this Dis- 
trict. 

Stated Terms of court, second Mondays of April and September. 
There are now thirty Lawyers in Minnesota. 

I am sir, 

Respectfully vours. 

AARON GOODRICH. 

St. Paul, March 4th „ 1851. 

v 



73 

I) ,> VvJ • 

The M'dewakan'twan bind of Sioux or Dakota tribe receive annui- 
ties under the treaty of September 1837 amounting to ten thousand dol- 
lars in money; and besides this annuity money, t he y receive every year 
ten thousand dollars in goods, live thousand five hundred expended in 
the purchase of provisio. is for them ; and eight thousand two hundred 
and fifty " in the purchase ofm:dieines, agricultural implements, and 
slock, and for the support of ap'i vsioi in. farmers, ami blacksmiths, and 
for other beneficial objects}" and all these sums are to be expended 
annu dly lor t\v mty years from the date of the trealy. A stipulation in 
the first article of tais treaty provides th it a •* portion of the interest" on 
the whole sum invested, "not exceeding one-third." being five thousand 
dollars annually, is to be applied in such manner as the President may 
direct," has been the occasion of much evil. Thus far. no use has been 
made of the money, and it has accumulated from year to year until it 
amounts to more than fi ty thousand dollars. The sub-agency lor these 
Indians is at L-'ort Snelling, and is known as the " Sub-Agency at Saint 
Peters, lor the Sioux of the Mississippi and St. Peters rivers." This 
•tribe numbers about 2/5 000. The seven bands of the M'dwajtariton 
Sioux— the only branch of the Dakota family with whom we have formal 
treaty stipulations — are scattered over a broad tract of country, extend- 
ing from the village ofShoekapee twenty-five miles up the St. Peters, to, 
the village of \ ahashaw, one hundred miles below its moulh on the 
.Mississippi. The letter of Nathaniel M Lean, Esq., on the subject of 
Sioux Indians, is given, as follows : 

bT. Pi/ters, MiJf. Ter., March 5 1851. 
Sin: — Your letter of the 5 th ultimo announcing my election as a mem- 
ber of the Minnesota Historical Society, has been received, for which 
accept my than -s. 

it is alledg3(l in your letter, that " the primary object of the associa- 
tion is the collection and preservation of a library, mineralogica! and 
geological specimens Indian curios. ties, and every matter and thing 
connected with and calculated to illustrate and perpetuate the history 
and seitlem .ml of the Territory of Minnesota, and to publish in book form 
the Most valuable manuscripts that may come into the possession of th* 
Society." 1 suppose it is the duty of every member of the Society to 
contribute his mite towards making a whole, if he has anything which 
he may deem interesting. I do not. Hatter myself that anything I can 
com nunicate will have much interest : but as my position as Indian Sub- 
Ag Mil at St. Peters of the Sioux tribe of Indians, who inhabit and own 
th •• most valuable part of Minnesota, has enabled me to obtain a few 
facts or items, which others not alike situated, may not be in possession 
of, I submit them for inspection. 

Tiie Dakota or Sioux nation. (Dakota is the name they prefer, and the 
original one, Sioux being given them by the French traders, longsince.) 
Is the most numerous, perhaps of any Indians on the continent — num- 
bering, the different tribes and bands, between twenty and thirty thou- 
sand. They are divided into numerous hands, and have separate inte- 
rest in the lands they claim, but are united in a common language, inter- 
©purse marriage &c. and unite for common defence. At what timu 
th jy cam j into the possession of this country cannot. 1 think, be correctly 
ascertained, i have conversed with some of the most aged among them, 



74 

say eighty years old, who were born in the vicinity of this place, and 
have heard of no other place as the residence of their fathers. They 
have been and still are a warlike people, and their wars with the sur- 
rounding tribes, have been numerous in former years, but now confined 
principally to the Cliippewas. which can be dated back from time imme- 
morial. They own ail the land from the Iowa line, on the west side of 
the Mississippi river, up to above latitude forty-six on the river, extend- 
ing south and east to the Missouri river — a distance of from three to 
four hundred miles. They have as yet only disposed of that part of their 
country east of the Mississippi, for which the M'dwakanton fcioux. as 
they are called, receive an annuity from th i general government of 
aomething over thirty thousand dollars, in the s rape of goods, provisions, 
and money, annually. It is well known that a commission has been ap- 
pointed to treat with them fin- a portion of their lands west of the river. 
Taking their country as a whole it is a good country; and a portion of 
it not exceeded for farming purposes in any part of the Mississippi Val- 
ley. The soil is tine, and a portion well timbered ; lakes and streams 
in abun 1 mce. 1 speak of that p irt p irticul ir y. watered by the St. Pe- 
ters or Minnesota river, 'which has been particularly explored during the 
last season. The land is said not to be so good as you approach near 
the Missouri — prairies are large, scarcity of timber, and too much sand. 

With regard to minerals. L cannot say much. It is asserted that coal 
has been found on the illue Earth river, a branch of the St. Peters. The 
red pipe-stone is found in abundance on a stream that discharges itself 
into the Missouri. All have seen this beautiful rock, and some blocks of 
it will adorn our national monument. 

That part of the nation, that inhabit the plains and over towards the 
Missouri, live mostly by the chase, raising only a small quantity of corn. 
Buffalo and furs are becoming scarce, and they will be compelled before 
long to adopt some other method of subsistence, or become extinct. — 
That part of the nation, who live in the vicinity of the Mississippi and 
lower St. Peters have Indian farmers and annuities, which enable them 
to subsist without depending entirety upon the game. 

Wit!) regard to civilization and Christianity, the Dakotas are behind 
many other tribes of our North- Western Indians, although they have had 
considerable advantages of missionaries and schools, it cannot be said, 
I think, that they are inferior to other nations, or even the white race, in 
mental capacity. I have seen many children, and adults also, that, it 
appears to me. would be susceptible of the highest culture, and that na- 
ture has been profuse in her gifts. There appears to be a want of effort, 
or motive to stimulate them to action. The time must come, when they 
will be incorporated with us as a people, living under our laws, adopting 
our habits, or disappear before the overwhelming wave Of the Anglo 
Saxon race. 

We have many legends, many noble instances of heroism, among this 
nation, which have been treated on by abler hands. 

If anything has been said in the above hasty scrawl that is worthy to 
bo embraced in the forthcoming publication, let it be added to the gen- 
oral mass of other contributers. 

With my best wishes for the success and prosperity of the Society, 
I am, very respectfully, 
Yours, 

NATHANIEL M'LEAN. 



75 



Dr. T. R. Potts is Physician for the Sioux, 
P. Prescott, Farmer. 



A. Robertson, Assistant 


Fanner. 


John Bush, 


do. 


do. 


M. S. Titus, 


do. 


do. 


H. Mooers, 


do. 


do. 


J. Mooers, 


do. 


do. 


P. Quinn, 


do. 


do. 


J. Brinnel, 


do. 


do. 


Mr. Chattel, Blacksmith. 




Mr. Rarecot, 


do. 





TRADERS IN THE DAKOTA COUNTRY, (SiOUX.) 



NAMES. 

M. McLeod, 
Joseph La Frambois, 
Alex. Grali am, 
Oliver Farribault, 
Sioux Outfit, 
James YVeSls, 
Alexis Bailly, Jr., 



STATIONS. 

Big Stone Lake and Lac-qui-Parle, Min. river 
Little Rock, do. 
Traverse des Sioux, do. 
Six's Village, do. 
Mendota, do. 
Lake Pepin. Mississippi river. 
Foot Lake Pepin, do. 



The Winnebago Agency is located about forty miles back from thft 
Mississippi river, on Long Prairie river, about one hundred and forty 
miles north from St. Paul. Long Prairie is about sixteen miles long anc 
on an average one and a-half miles wide, stretching from the north east 
to the south-east; and from the high and central location of the n<zency 
buildings lying around it. presents a highly picturesque and agreeable 
view. This tribe numbers about two thousand five hundred souls. "Che 
first recorded treaty by the United States with this tribe was 1816. — 
They were again included in a treaty made at Prairie du Chien in the 
year 1825, and at the same place in the year 1829 another treaty was 
made with them, by which they received &30.000 in goods, and $18 000 
annuity for thirtv years, and three thousand pounds of tobacco, and fifty 
barrels of salt annually lor the same period. And again they treated in 
1832. with an annuity of $10,000 for twenty-seven years, wifna stip- 
ulation to establish a boarding school for them at Prairie du Chien, tor 
the same period, at an annual cost of $3000, and $3,700 more, annually 
for farmers, blacksmiths, physicians. &c. They also made a treaty &r 
Washington in the year 1837, by which they sold all their lands east of 
the Mississippi. Under this latter treaty the government paid two hun- 
dred thousand dollars in liquidation of their debts; one hundred thou- 
sand dollars to their relations of mixed blood; expended seven thousand 
dollars for their removal west ; gave them fifty thousand dollars in horses 
and goods, and paid for provisions, erecting a grist mill, breaking and 
fencing ground, and incidental expenses, the sum of forty-three thousand 
dollars. It was also agreed to pay to them annually for twenty two 
years, ten thousand dollars in provisions, twenty thousand dollars in 
goods, twenty thousand dollars in money, and five thousand dollais to 



76 

be devoted to education, agriculture, &c. Thpy made a treaty at 
Washington City in 1846. by which ihoy agreed to remove to the Upper 
Mississippi, and which they did in the year 1848 In this last treaty they 
disposed of all their interest or claim m any lands whatever, on condition 
that the United States should give to them "a tract of country north of 
St. Peters, and west of the [Mississippi rivers, of not less than eight hun- 
dred thousand acres, and pay them one hundred and ninety thousand 
dollars for the following purposes, to wit; To liquidate their debts, for 
their removal and subsistence, for breaking up and fencing lands at their 
new home ; and including ten thousand dollars of it for manual labor 
schools, and five thousand dollars ior grist and saw mills. I he bal- 
ance, being eighty five thousand dollars, is to remain in trust with the 
United Mates, at five per cent., for thirty years ; and the interest thereon 
is to be paid to the tribe yearly. The Winnebago schools have been 
under the direction of Rev. Mr. Lowry, but are now managed by Dr. 
Thomas Foster — Mr. Lowry having removed last year with his family to 
Tennessee. Dr. D. Day is physician for the Winnebagoes ; J. W. 
Heath, the farmer. The licensed traders for the Winnebagoes are the 
following persons, to wit : 

David Olmsted, Charles R. Rice and Geo. Culver, firm of Riee and 
Culver; Pierre Choteau, Jr., & Co. Agent of this firm is C. W. Borup, 
and their storekeeper is William 11. Forbes, at St. Paul. 



THE CHIPPEWAS OR JIB WAS. 

The sub-agency of this tribe was removed last July from La Pointe, 
in Wisconsin, to Sandy Lake, in Minnesota Territory. 

The Chippewa or Ojibwa nation of Indians, constitute about 8 000, of 
which near 4 500 reside in this Territory ; the balance in Wisconsin and 
Michigan. This tribe is reputed to be the most chivalric of their race, 
and are a nation of whose dialect mythology, legends and customs, we 
have the fullest accounts. It is the Algouquin tribe. 

They occupy both shores of Lake buperior; and the Ojibwas. who 
live beyond the Assinaboines to the far north-wfst. and the Kesteneaux, 
or Krees, who dwell beyond them again, are ail branches of the same 
great people. 

A recent writer correctly describes them — " The Chippewas are small 
in person." This remark in regard to their size does not apply exactly 
to the woods Chippewas. west of the Mississippi, "and of a quiet and 
meek aspect; they have an indomitable spirit, and a prowess that shrinks 
from no encounter ; they are the Poles of the North, whose wont is to 
stand, without regard to odds, and fall every man on his track, rather 
than fly." 

Migrating from the east late in the sixteenth or early in the seven- 
teenth century, they first settled at the Falls of St. Mary, from which 
point they gradually pressed westward ; and eventually compelled the 
Dakota nation to abandon its ancient seat around the headwaters of the 
Mississippi, whose rice lakes and hunting grounds the Chippewas at this 
day possess, and beyond to the Red river of the North. 

In consideration ofthe cession by the two treaties of 1837 and 1842, 
the United Stales stipulated to pay them for twenty and twenty-five years, 



77 

$22 000 in money; $29,500 in goods; 85 000 in blacksmithing ; $1,200 
for carpenters ; i-6,000 lor fanners, and an agricultural iund ; &4,50O 
for provisions and tobacco; ffejOfc) for schools ; and agreed to pay 
$45,000 to the Chippewa half-breeds, and & 1 45 000 in liquidation of 
•their just debts. For those made by the treaty of 1847, they were paid 
down $45,000; and the Mississippi portion of them were allowed & 1000 
annually, for forty-six years, to be paid in money, or to be applied to- 
wards the support of schools, or the employment of blacksmiths and la- 
borers; and the Pillager band certain stipulated articles of goods, of the 
value of about. &3 600, for five years. 

The entire Chippewa tribe are divided into fifteen families, upon ths 
totemic principle, to each rtf which are four subdivisions. Eacii family 
has a crest or symbol of some bird, fish, or animal, called, in their no- 
menclature, the totem; to the origin of each of which some legend at- 
taches. The system is ancient, and dates as far back as their most un- 
natural and absurd traditions extend. Though divided by thousands of 
miles, and unconnected for generations, members of the same totem can- 
not intermarry or cohabit with one another. The totem descends in ths 
male line. 



The Menomonee (Wild Rice) Indians have not yet removed to their 
lands in this Territory, although the term of their stay in W isconsin, un- 
der the treaty of 1846, expired during the present month. Undercharge 
of Colonel Bruce, their agent, and Mr. Cliilds, a party of the chiefs of 
this people, in the months of June and July last, made an exploration of 
the country provided for them by treaty, situated north of Crow Wing 
river ; and after a most minute examination, the gentlemen who accom- 
panied the delegation upon their return expressed to me in glowing, 
terms their favorable opinion of the country, and firm conviction that in 
the lakes, the rivers, the prairies, and the forests of that region, means 
of subsistence sufficient for the wants of the tribe could easily ha 
found. 

A deputation of the Stockbridge Indians, during the pas! autumn, vis- 
ited this Territory, to select a location for the feeble remnant of that 
once powerful tribe; and it is presumed they will remove to this Terri- 
tory the ensuing summer. 

A great amount of valuable information in regard to the Indians, may 
be found in the annual reports of Gov. Ramsey of 1849 and 1850, to 
the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, at Washington City. 1). C. The 
Governor being ex-officio Superintendent of Indian Affairs within this 
Territory, has necessarily many opportunities to collect items of infor- 
mation in regard to the tribes; and his reports show that he has takefc 
advantage of his position, to the great profit of the public. 



As Minnesota Territory contains a large population of Indiana wiihin 
its borders, if may be useful and interesting to add the following tabic of 
the principal tribes, from Drake's Indian biography, a work of great in- 
terest and immense merit. 



78 

A bcnakies. near Three Rivers, in Canada; in number about 150, ii 

1780; in 1689, about 200. 

Absorokas, or Crow Indians, on the Missouri, near the Rocky Moun- 
tains. 

Adirondaks, on the St. Lawrence ; numerous in 1607 ; in 1786, about 
100. 

Ajoues, south of the Missouri, and north of the Padoucas ; 1100 in 
1760. 

Amalistes, formerly on the St. Lawrence ; about 500 in 1760. 

Apalachicolas, on the river of that name; in 1835. about 340; have 
ftgreed to emigrate; about 260 have gone west of the Mississippi. 

Arrapahas, now about 4000; about the sources of the Kunzas river. 

Assinnaboins, now about 1000, on Ottawa river; reduced by the fcioua. 

Attikamegues. in the north of Can.ada; destroyed by disease in 
1670. 

Aughquagas, on the east branch of the Susquehannah river; 150 in 
1768. 

Bedies, on Trinity river, about 60 miles southward of Nacogdoches; 
100. 

Big Devil Indians, -Yanktons of the Plains, 2500; heads of the Red 

river. 

Blackfeet, various warlike bands about the sources of the Missouri, 
and in the region of the Rocky Mountains; estimated in 1 834 at 30.000. 

Blanches, or Bearded Indians, white Indians on upper southern 
feranehes Missouri ; 1530 in 1 76 J. 

Biothertons, in New York, near Oneida lake; now (1836) supposed to 
number 350. 

Caddoes, in 1717, a powerful nation on Red river; now reckoned at 

-300. 

Caiwas, near the heads of the Arkansas; neither brave nor generous. 
Camanches, or Comanches, a warlike and numerous race on the Con- 
ines of Texas. 

Catawbas, on Catawba river, in South Carolina; had long wars with 
the Iroquois; 150 warriors in 1764. 

Caugimewagas, tribes of praying Indians, in several places. 

Cherokees, Carolina and Tennessee; 12,000 in 1812; 9,000 have 
agreed to emigrate. 

Chiens. near the source of Chien river; 200 in 1820. y 

Chikahominies, on Mataponv river, in Virginia, in 1661 ; but 3 or 4 
in 1790. 

Chikasaws, between the head branches of Mobile river in 178-0; once 
said io have been 10,000; in 1763, about 250; now vastly increased; 
in 1835, 5 600 agreed to emigrate. 

( 'hikamaugas, on the Tennessee. 90 miles below the Cherokees, many 
years since broken from them, under the chief, Dragomono. 

Chillukittequaus, next below the Narrows on the Columbia; 1400 in 
32 lodges. 

ChimnahpiUm, at Lewis's river, N. W. side of the Columbia ; 1300, in 

42 lodges. 

Chinnooks, north side of Columbia river; 400. in 28 lodges. 
Oh'ippewaSs many formidable tribes abuut the great lakes — See Ojib- 

was. 

Choi; t:; us, ibiinurly of Carolina ; about 15X00 in 1812 ; now on a^ov- 



79 

ernment crant of 15.000,000- acres on the north side of Red river, and 
about 18 000. 

Chopunnishes, on the Kooskooskee, 2 000; and- on Lewis' river, be- 
low Kooskooskee, to the Columbia. 2300; in all. in 18C6, 73 lodges. 

Clarkstars, beyond the Rocky Mountains ; 1200, in 28 lodges. 

Clatsops, below mouth Columbia, about Point Adams ; 2J0, in 14 
lodges. 

Cohakies, nearly destroyed by the Saques and Foxes, in the time of 
Pontiak ; in 1800, a few wanderers near vVinuebago Lake. 
Comanches. — See Camanohes. 

Conoies, near, the east branch of the Susquehannah ; about forty in 
1780. 

Congarcs, on the Congaree river in South Carolina. 
Copper Indians, far in the north, about Coppermine river; numer^ 
ous.. 

Corees, a tribe of North Carolina. 

Creeks, formerly over a vast country from near the Gulf of Mexico, 
north-east. 

Crees, north of the Missouri, and west of the Mississippi ; 3 000, in 
1834. 

Djlawares, once numerous on the river and bay ol that name ; now: 
chiefly beyond the Mississippi ; anciently, Lenalenape. 

Dinoridadies, a tribe of the Hurons; same as the Tsononthouans of 
the French. 

Docotas, bands of the Sioux. 

Dog Indians, or Chiens, 3460, on the heads ofChavcnne river. 
l)og-iib Indians, tribe of Blackieel, to the north of them; of a differ- 
ent language. 

Echemins, on a river of their name, which (lows into the St. Lawrence, 
on the east side. 

Eneshures, at the Great Narrows of the Columbia; 1230, in 41 clans. 
Eries. on the east of the lake of their nauu, entirely exterminated by 
the Iroquois. 

Eskeioots. on the Columbia; 1000. in 21 lodges or clans. 
Esquimaux, about Labrador and the neighboring* ountry. 
Euuhees, friendly Creeks; 200 now in service against the Seminoles-. 
Five Nations, anciently many thousands, on the east of the great lakes. 
Flat-heads, beyond the Rocky Mountains, on a fork of Columbia 
river. 

Foxes, or Ottagamies, on Fox river, in Illinois — See Saques and Fox- 
es. 

Fond du Lac Indians, roam from Snake river to the Sandy Lake. 
Gav Head Indians, en Martha's Vineyard; piobably VV ampanoags; 
201 in 1800. 

Grand River Indians, on Grand river, North side of Lake Ontario; 
remnant of the Iroquois; 3000. 

Gros Ventres, on the river Maria, in 18G6; 3300 in 1834. west of the 
Mississippi. 

Herring Pond Indians, Wampanoags. in Sandwich, Mass.; abou( 
forty. 

llurons, numerous and formidable, upon Lake Huron end adja- 
cent. 

Illinois, formerly numerous up-m |Uq Illinois river. 



83 

Iowas, recently on Iowa river, now scattered among other tribes of 
the west; 1100. 

Iroquois, or Five Nations, a chief remnant now on Grand liver. Sec 
Grand Rivers. 

Kaninavisches, wanders on the Yellow Stone, near its source; about 
200. 

Kanzas,on the river of the same name; about 1000. 

Kaskayas. between the sources of the Platte and Roky mountains, 
beyond the Kites; 3000. 

Kiawas. also beyond the Kites; in number about 1000. 

Kfgenes, on the coast of the Pacific, binder a chief named Skittegates, 
in 1821. 

Kik ipoos, formerly in Illinois; now about 330, chiefly beyond the Mis- 
sissippi. 

Killamuks, branch of the Clatsops coast Pacific ocean; about 1CC0. 
Killewats, in a large town southeast of the Luktons. 
Kimocnims band of Chopunnish on Lewis' river, 800. in 33clans. 
Kites, between sources Platte and the Rocky mountains; about 5li0. 
Knisteneaux, or Christinaux, on Assinaboin r.ver, 5C00 in 1812. 
Kookkoo ooses, south of the Killawats, on the coast of the Pacific; 
about 15 JO. 

Leech River Indians, near Sandy Lake; about 350. 
Leu ape. or Lenelenape. former name of Delawares. which see. 
Luk iwisscs on the coast ol'the Pacific ocean, about 800. 
Luktons, to the southwest of the Killamuks, on the coast of the Pa- 
cific. 

Mandans. 1612 miles upon the Missouri on both sides; and 1200. 
Manahoaks, formerly a great nation of Virginia, some time since ex- 
tinct. 

Marshpees, chiefly a mixed remnant of the noble Wampanoags. in. 
Sandwich, Mass.; about 4J0: lately conspicuous in asserting their dor- 
mant rights, under the direction of the etiicient Mr. William Apess, of 
Pequot descent. 

Massawomes, formerly a very warlike nation in what is now Ken- 
tucky. 

Menorninies, formerly on Illinois river; now about 330, west of tho 
Mississippi. 

Mess isagnes, subdued early by, and incorporated .with the Iro- 
quois; about Lakes Huron and Superior in 1764, and then reckoned a? 
2000. 

Miamies, on the Mississippi, below the Ouisconsin, and in number 
about 1500. 

Hikmaks. on the river St. Lawrence; about 500 in 17C6. 
Mindawarcarton, the only band of Sioux that cultivates corn, leans, 
&c. 

Minetures, on Knife river, near the Missouri, five miles above the Man- 
dans; 2530. 

Mingoes; such of the Iroquois were so called as resided upon the Sci- 
oto river. 

Mohawks: f 'rmerly a great tribe of the Iroquois, and the most warlike 
©f those Five Nations. # 

Moheakunnuks, formerly between the Hudson and Delaware r< vers. 
Mohegans, a remnant now on Thames, below Norwich, m Connecticut.. 



81 



Mosquitos, a numerous race, on the east side of the isthmus of Dari- 
en. 

Multnomahs, tribe ofthe Wappatoos, mouth Multnomah river; 800. 
Munsees. north branch iSu^queliannau in 1 78 J, on Wabash in 1S08; 
now unknown. 

Muskogee*, on Alabama and Apalaehicola rivers; 17,000 in 1775. 

Nab j >.s. between north Mexico and lite Pacific; live in stone houses, 
and id mufaoture. 

Nanto.;okes, near the east branch of the Susquehannah in 1730, and 
about 8J. 

Narr gmssets, once a powerful nation, about the south ofthe bay of 
that name. 

Natchez, discovered in 1701; chiefly destroved in 1720; 150 in 
17G4. 

Niantiks, a tribe ofthe Narragansets, and were in alliance with them. 
Niean ii> is, once about Micinlnnauinak, joined Iroquois in 1723. 
Nipissuis, near the source of the Oitoway river; abo it 400 in 1764. 
Nipmu.k, interior of Massachusetts; 1500 in 1675; long since ex- 
tinct. 

Nottoways, on Nottoway river, in Virginia; but two of clear blood ia 
1817. 

Oakmuiges, to the east of Flint river; about 200 in 1834. 

Ojibew i.*, or Cupaewas, about 3J ; O0J o.i th ; great lakes. 

Omalns on Bftthorn river, 8 J miles from Council Bluff*; about 2200. 

Oneid is. a nation of the Iroquois, near Oneida lake* abuut 1000. 

Onon ligis. a nation of the Li oqu >is, Ononndaga Hollow; about 300. 

Ootlas loots, trine of tl>3 Tuskepas, on Ciark's river, west Koeky 
mountains; about 400. 

Osag.-s, Great and Little, on Ark ansa w and Osage rivers; about 
4900. 

Otagjtmie8, between the Lake of the Woods and Mississippi; 3-00 in 
1780. 

Ottaww. east Lake Michigan; 2300 in 1820; at Lake Huron, about 
20 j in 17 86". 

Ottoes.on Platte river; about 1500 in 1S20, 
Ouiato aon-i, on the WabasU formerly, 300 in 1779. 
Ozas, about lied river; about 2J00in 1750. 

Padoueas, s.;uth ofthe Missouri, and west ofthe Mississippi; 2000 in 
18.34. 

Pancas on the west of the Missouri; about 750 in 1830. 
Panis, w nle south Missouri, 2J00; freckled Pains, about 1700. 
Pass i n iqa addies, remnant ofthe Tarratines, on S3chood»c river; 
about 371). 

Paunees, on the Platte and its branches; about 10 C00. 
Pelloatpaliah, tribe of the Cliopunnish, on Kooskooskee; about 
1600. 

Penobscots, island in Penobscot river, 12 miles above Bangojr; about 
300. 

Pequots, formerly about the mouih of the Connecticut, now a mixed * 
remnant, about 100. 

Piankash iws. on tin Wabash, formerly 33C0; in 1780 but 050. 
Pishauiipaha, north side Columbia, at Muacieahell rapUU, about 2600. 
H 3 6 



82 



Pottowattoniies. formerly numerous, now on Huron river, about 160. 
Powhatans, Sanations, or tribes, spread over Virginia when settled by 
the whites. 

Quapaws, opposite Little Rock, cn Arlcansaw river; about 7CD. 
Qu ihlahpohtles, southwest side Columbia, above the mouth of Tah- 
wahnahiooks. 

Quatoghies, formerly on south Lake Michigan; sold their country to 
English in 1707. 

Quieetsos, coast Pacific ocean, north mouth Colnmbia; about 2&$. 
Quiniilts, coast Pacific, south Quietsos,. and north Columbia; about 
1000. 

Quinnecharts, coast Pacific, north the Quieetsos; about 2000. 
Rapids, a brave lr.be on the prairies, towards the sources of the Mis- 
souri. 

Red-knife Indians, (so called from their copper knives ) roam in the 
region of Slave lake. 

Ricarees. on Missouri, between the Great Bend and Mandan. 

River Indians, formerly south of the Iroqusis, down the noith side of" 
Hudson river to the sea. 

Roundheads, on the east side of Lake Superior; about 2530 in 1764. 

Sauks, Sacs, or Saques, in Illinois, about Lake Winnebago; now 
about 500 in Missouri. 

Scattakooks upper part of Troy in New York; went from New Eng* 
land about 1672. 

Seminoles.East Florida, now (1836) estimated from S to 10 000. 

Senecas, one of the ancient Iroquois nations; 2200 near Buffalo, New 
York. 

Serraunes, in Carolina, nearly destroyed by the Wesloes, about 
1670. 

Saahalpahs, at the Grand F,apids of the Columbia river; 2800, in 62 

!odg< s. 

Shawanees, now about 13J0. on the Missouri. 

Shoshones'c'or Snakes, driven into the Rocky mountains by the Black- 
feet. 

Sioux, on St. Peters, Mississippi, and Missouri; numerous; 33,0C0. 
Skilioots, on the Columbia, from Sturgeon island upward; about 
25 )0. . 

Snake Indians, or Shoshones, borders Rocky mountains, about 3000. 
Smockshops, on Columbia river, at mouth of Labiche; 800 in 24 clans. 
Sokokies. anciently upon Saco river; now extinct. 
Skulks, on Columbia, above Lewis' river; about 2,400, in 12) lodges. 
Souties, the name by which some know the Oltoways. which see. 
Soyennoms, on east fork L nvis* river; about 400 in 33 villages. 
Staitans. anarne by which the Kitbs are known,, which see. 
Stockbridge Indians, New Stoekhridgi. New York; about 400 in 
1820. 

St. John's Indians, remnant of the Esquimaux, on the St. Jt. John's in. 
JNew Biunswick 300. 
Synierons. on ih;» east side of the isthmus of D'arien; numerous. 
Xetons piratical bands of tho Sioux of the Missouri. 
Tsononlhouau>','ir;bi' ol the l-ftjmns. — See Dmomladies. 
Tuscaroras. j'>in'< y d the Iroquois fftYrn Carolina, in 171.2. 
Twitees 3 on the Great Miami, 200 in 1780. 



83 

Tushepahs; on Clark's river in summer, and Missouri in winter; about 
430, 

Tuteloes; an ancidnt nation between Chespeak and Delaware bays. 
Uchees, a tribe of Creeks, formely in. four Towns. — See Euchees. 
Ulscahs, onthe coast of* the Pacific ocean; about L50. 
Wabifma, between the West branch of the Deleware and Hudson 
rivers. 

Wanamies, in New Jersey, from the Raritan to the sea. 
Wahovvpums, on the north branch of the Columbia; about 700, in 35 

Jodges. 

Wappatoos, 13 tribes, of various names, on the Columbia; about 
$500. 

Welsh Indians, said to be on a southern branch of the Missouri. 
Westoes, once a powerful tribe in South Carolina, nearly destroyed in 
1670. 

Willewahs, about 500, in 33- clans, Willewah river. 
Winnebagoes, on Winnebago lake now chiefly beyond the Missis- 
sippi. 

Wolfe Indians, a tribe of the Pawnees, commonly called Pawnee 
Loups. 

\V0llaw0llah3, on the Columbia, from above Muscleshell Rapids; 
1600. 

J* Wycomes, a tribe on the Susquehannah, in 1648; about 250. 

Wyandots, on Great Miami and Sandusky; 500, formerly very war- 
like. 

Yarnoisees, South Carolina, early nearly destroyed by the whites. 
Yattasies, branch Red river, 50 miles above Natchitoches; 100 in 1812; 
dpeak Caddo. 

Yazoos, once a great tribe of Louisian, now lost among the Chicka- 

aaws. 

h Yeahtentanees, formerly near the mouth of the Wabesb. 

Yeletpos,on a river which falls into Lewis' above Kooskooskee; 250. 
Yonikkones, on the coast of the Pacific ocean; about 700. 
Yonktons, branch, of Sioux, about falls St. Anthony, about 1000. 
Yon kt oris of the Plains, or Big Devils; 2500; sources of the Sioux, &c. 
Xouitts, on the coast of the Pacific ocean; about 150. 



84 



E. 

SAINT PAUL, 
The head of navigation on the Upper Mississippi. 
latitude 44° 62' 46" — longitude 93° 4' 54" 

This town is a port ot entry, the county seat, and the seat of govern- 
ment of the Territory of Minnesota. Also, pleasantly situated on the 
east bank of the Mississippi river, eight mile* from the Fulls of »St. An- 
thony, and five miles froni Fort duelling; about 2./70 miles from the 
mouth of the Mississippi river, and near its confluence with the 8t. Pe- 
ters rivei\ and is elevated about 800 above the Gull of Mex.co. It is 
ziear the geographical centre of the continent of North America, in the 
North Temperate Zone, and must eventually become a centr.d nucleus 
lor the business ot one of the best watered, timbered, and most fertile 
and healthy countries on the globe. It is surrounded in the rear by a 
semicircular ph teau, elevated about forty feet abovp the town, of easy 
grade, and commanding a magnificent view of the river above and be* 
low. Nature never planned a spot belter adapted to build up a showy 
and delightful display of architecture and gardening, than that natural 
terrace 01 .alls. During the past year it ' has sprung up like Minerva, 
full armed, from the hand of J upiter ; ? ' and now contains four churches, 
several large hotels, two steam saw mills, in operation, a large number of 
stores, two daguerreotypists, with many other branches of industry — and 
fifteen hundred inhabitants. Last nu least, three weekly newspapers, 
and one monthly, printed in the Sioux and English languages ; the whole 
forming an instance of W estern enterprise and detei mined energy and 
resolution hitherto unsurpassed in the history of any frontier settlement. 

Whatever direction we take among the localities of Minnesota, we find 
subjects of interest, whether in awaking the spirits of the dusky past, or 
alighting upon the improvements of our own linies. There is scarcely 
a section of tie wot Id newer than this; and, we may add there is no 
section winch has started upon the horizon of civilized life more sudden* 

i y . ..,n« o. , ., ' ; . .. tifo, 

From the lower landing of St. Paul, we rise upon a bench some sev~ 
enty-^iva feel above the river, and come upon the site of the lower town, 
which — with the extensi n up the river as far as the upper landing, a dis» 
tance of three-lourths of a mile, where is a most vigorous young town cf 
later growth — completes St. Paul, the capital of Minnesota. Ketiring 
from the lower town, about half a mile northerly, across a plain whiea 
ijppears to h ive once been the basin of a lake, for it is nearly walled in 
by a bluff fifteen feet high we suddenly iise upon a third blufi 'neurit two 
hundred feel high, ant! some three hundred feet above the MisMsMppi.— 
This ascent is wooded, and so is the region beyond, for perhaps twenty 
mile3. From this point we overlook St. Paul ; extending the vision dowai 
the river some twenty miles, taking within the compt.ss of the eye. a 
wide stretch of tlie Sioux Unds and bluish hills far away up the bt. Pe* 
ters, in the west. 

To the north, though the grounds descend from the bluff, for sorc« 
throe miles, there are bu? few oi jects of distinct outline. Alter viewing 
a&maiUake, lying about a mile to the north- west, as a soiling to a bor- 



85 

der of oak openings, wc proceed through a constantly alternating succes- 
sion of oak-covered knolls, marshy dells, and around the margins of 
small tamarack swamps. These swamps, though dismal, for their size, 
are the most curious obj cts to the eye of the stranger, which this region 
presents. The trees grow so thick that they choke each other out of the 
chance lor a subsistence, or else they die a natural death after a certain 
age, so that they resemble a scene of shipping in a sea-port mo^tstrikingly. 
it is easy, when in a dreamy mood of mind, to fancy these bare poles as 
the masts of so me diluvian squadrons, which had lost their reckoning, 
and finally getting discouraged, moored in the mud. 

There are no guide-boards on this road, and the angler or sportsman 
— -who cairt parlez jrancais with the French residents, whose cabins 
nestle in some of the sly retreats along the path — may thank the stars if 
he does not get lost over night. 

The region is spotted all over, at distances of one to three miles, with 
bright and cool little lakes, that abound in fish ; among which is the real 
White Mountain trout. 

Having had personal observation no farther out in this direction than 
some four miles, we must take a tack in our description, merely adding 
that there is a settlement, two miles beyond our discoveries, called Lit- 
tle Canada, composed oi French ; that, sixteen miles from St. Paul, is a 
lake famous for fish, and somewhere else in that vicinity are the exten- 
sive cranberry meadows, temporarily occupied by the Sioux Indians, 
who have already sent into St. Paul 4000 bushels of cranberries this sea- 
son, (1850.) 

The scone over the bluff in the rear of the upper town of St. Paul, is 
Jhe delightful prairie which extends off about six miles towards St. An- 
thony Falls. 

The true quality of the soil of the comparatively chaotic lands in the 
rear of St. Paul, is, after all, better than that of the lands of Western New 
York. It has less of the black alluvion than our lands generally, yet it 
is highly productive ; and so far as experience has tested its capabilities, 
it does not depreciate at all by cropping. It is strongly impregnated 
with lime, and possesses in a high degree the active principle imparted 
by a variety or mineral substances. 

This sod can be made, by the application of manure, of which an 
abundance can be had for the trouble of carting from town, more pro- 
ductive than the best river bottoms. For the purpose of gardening, we 
are inclined to prefer it to the latter; and if we were to make a claim, we 
would "take up' ' the lands we could find unoccupied, nearest the town. 

The lower part of the town was laid out 28th Feb., 1849. by Louis 
Roberts, Henry Jackson, David Lambert. Benjamin VV. Brunson, Chas. 
Caviieer, Henry H. Sibley. J. W. Bass, Augustus L. Larpenteur, W. H. 
Forbes, J. VV. Simpson, Vital Guerin, and others. That portion of the 
town which is known as the " Upper Town," was laid out by Henry M. 
Rice and John H. Irvine, in January, 1849 ; and a further addition to 
said town was made in the summer of 1849, by Samuel Leech, C. K. 
Smith, VV. II. Forbes, James McC. Boal, Louis Roberts, Alexander 
Wilkin, H. VV. Tracy, J. C. Ramsey. This addition is called "Leech's 
Addition." In it there are nine blocks, fourteen lots in each block. — 
Th3 streets and lots occupy forty acres of land;,and lastly, the addition 
of Whitney and Smith, was laid out also in the spring of 1849, and is sit- 
uated in the lower part of the town. 



The Legislature has authorized the location of ihe capitol buildings of 
the Territory at this.point. The commissioners of the public buildings 
will be elected this spring, and the erection of the capitol will be given 
out and the wo:k commenced soon. 

We have many branches of business carried on here already. We 
give a meagre and very imperfect list of some of our business men, a* 
follows : 

EDITORS AND PUBLISHERS. 

James M. Goodhue, Minnesota Pioneer. 

Charles J. Henniss, Minnesota Chronicle and Register. 

I). A. Robertson, Minnesota Democrat. 

G. II. Pond. Dakota Friend. 

J. W. Chaskarak, Watab Reveille. 



HOTELS AND BOARDING-HOUSES. 



Rodney Parker, American House. 
Robert Kennedy, Central Houyeu 
L. E. Paul, Lafayette House. 
Lott Moffat, Boarding House.. 
J.Caslner, do. do. 
F. Brown, do.. do. 



LAWYERS. 



Edmund Rice, 
H. F. Masterson, 
P. P. Bishop, 
M. S. Wilkinson, 
J. J. Noah, 
R. R. Nelson, 
John F. Teh an, 
Geo. L. Becker, 
C. K. Smith, 



W. IIolTinshead, 
W. D. Phillips, 
Wm. P. Murray, 
L. A. Babcock, 
Alex. Wilkin, 
Allen Pierse, 
B. W. Lott, 
H. A. Lambert. 

Jas. K. Humphrey, Clerk of Courts. 



PHYSICIANS. 



T. R. Potts, 
W. W. Hickox, 
N. Barbour, 



John J. Dewev, 
C. Rich, 

W. H. Jarvis, Surgeon and Dentist. 



DRUGGISTS. 

J. J. Dewev, Chas. Cavileer, 

W. W.eickox, 

C. W. Borup, Agent Minnesota Outfit, St. Paul. 



JUSTICES OF THE PEACE. 



Orlando Simons, 



B, W- Lott. 



87 



SURVEYORS. 



B.-W. Brunson, 



V/. EL Jar vis, 



Chas. R. Conway. 



DAG ITER R EOT YPIST3. 



Whitney &; Nichols. 



MERCHANTS 



Win. Henry Forbes, 

A. L. Larpenteur, 

8. H. Sergent, 

John Randall & Co., 

ilendee & I'oroert, 

J. VV. Farrington, 

D. L. Fuller, 

Elfelt & iiios,, 

R. Mc Lagan, 

J. MoUloud, Jr., & Co,, 



C. P. V. Lull, 
Mr. Hedges, 
Chas. Bozil, 
J. R. Irvine, 



A. R. French, 



H. McCann, and others. 



James Mc. Baal, 
E. in man, 



P. K. Johnson, 

John Garden, 

Geo. Douglass & Co. 



Louis Roberts. 

11. VI*. Tracy & Co., 

R. M. spencer, 

J. VV . fcmipson, 

Rice & llauey, 

Levi faloan, 

B. Presley, 

J. E. Fuderton, 

W. G. LeDuc, 

R. West MoCioud. 



CARPENTERS. 



Mr. Hull, 
C. M. Freeman, 
Mr. Freeborne, 
Pi entice &; Knox. 



SADDLERS. 

Wm. Mack. 

SHOEMAKERS. 
PAINTERS. 

J. R. Brewster, 
Mr. Sherman. 



TAILORS. 



Wm. H. Tinker, 
Wm. Armstrong, 



WATCHMAKERS. 
BAKERS. 

Geo. Spence. 

TINNERS AND STOVE DEALERS. 

C. D.. Bevaia-s & Bro., F. S. Newell. 



N. Spicer 6l Bro. 
Geo. Humphre}', 



\ 



83 



INSURANCE COMPANIES. 



St. Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Agency, Columbus Insurance 
Companv ofUolumbus, Ohio. Capital &3 JU,00U ; Agents, Rice, Whit- 
all and Becker. 

Protection Fire and Marine Insurance Company of'Ilartford, Conn. 
Capital. $1.000000; VV. P. Murray. Agent. 

National Loan Fund Life Assurance Company. Capital &2 500,000; 
C. K. Smitli, Agent. 

R. R. Nelson, Agent for the Etna Insurance Company; Incorporated 
May, 1849. 

LIVERY STABLES. 

Pattison & Benson, Willoughby & Powers. 

COLLECTOR OF CUSTOMS. 

C. J. Menniss. 

SALOONS AND COFFEE HOUSES. 

H. FT. Deyarman, D. P. Biawley, 

F. Monti,' D. C. Murray, 

Mr. Sylvester, L>. Rogers, 

Mr. Turpin, Chas. Cave, 

Wm. Co..stance, Charles Creek. 

BLACKSMITHS. 

A. II. Cavender, Mr. Taylor. 

FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS. 

St. Paul Lodge No. 1, instituted 8th August, 1849; meets on the firs* 
Monday of every month. 

ODD FELLOWS. 

St. Paul Lodge No. 2, meets every Saturday evening at 6 o'clock, at 
the Odd Fellows Haft, over the store of R. M. Spencer, iSt. Pau?. 

SONS OF TEMPERANCE. 

St. Paul Division No. 1. instituted May 8, 1859. Meets every Tues- 
day evening at Temperance Hall, at 7 o'clock. 



STILLWATER. 

The following letter from John McKussick, gives a very satisfactory 
account of the first settlement of this village and the surrounding country ; 

Dear Sir: — In reply to your enquiry for the facts, dates &c., as to 
the early Settlements of the Territory now included, within he limits of 
Washington county, I send you items as they occur to me, hoping that 



89 



a hurried review even, of our short history, may afford you something 
sa isjf'actory. 

The first settlement of this cour.ty was commenced in 1037 at what is 
called Taylor's Falls — by Baker, Taylor and others of the Nor hwest 
Lumber Company. About whi'ih time, the Government treaty, w,th tho 
Sioux and Chippewa Indi ins was concluded tor the laud, the k - ioux own- 
ing the Southern, and the Uhippewas the northern portion ofth j laud in 
this county. July 17th, 1833. the treaty being ratified by Congress, con- 
sequently several settlements were commenced about that time. Several 
by the I'Yench, along the shores of Lake St. Croix, as well as the more 
important settlements ol'the Marine and Palls of St. Croix. 

The first Steam Boat that navigated the river St. Croix wis the Pal- 
myra, July 17th. 1833, having on hoard the original proprietors of the 
Marine and Falls of St. Croix Saw Mills, together witn their necessary 
supp i»* and machinery, for the erection of the chills at those pi ices. The 
Falls of St. Croix not being within our county, 1 therelore proceed to 
notice next the settlement of the Marine Mills, which was commenced in 
2833. by Samuel Burkleo. formerly of the state of Delaware, Orange 
"Walker from Vermont, and others of the Marine Lumber Coin p any, who 
succeeded in erecting a good Saw -AMI, for the maunficture of Pine 
lumber* Other buildings of different kinds have since been biTt. to- 
gether with one large and commodious Tavern $'?an?dt. This place is a 
business point of considerable importance. 

At this time, the jurisdiction of Crawford County, Wisconsin Territory, 
•extended over all this Territory, northwest from Prairie du Chien. Jo- 
seph it. Brown was chosen Representative to the Legislative Assembly 
of Wisconsin, to represent the wants of the population, an I among the 
many representations of the wants of the people, was the org uiiz -.it ion. of 
a new county here, which was granted by the Legislature in 1841, at- 
will be seen by their act, Nov. 2J, entitled an act to org uiiz s the county 
of St. Croix. At the time prescribed by law for holding the court, up 
same the Ju Ige to hold the court at the seat of Justice, and on arriving 
at Dakota, the seat of Justice, to his great astonishment, the only build- 
ing in tne Town, Wis a rou^h log cabin, occupied by a lone Frenchman, 
who it appears was employed by the proprietor of the Town to take 
care of the county se it, in his absence. This kind ofreception net, meeting 
the expectations ol'the Judge, he very naturally took hick tricks, and 
thus ended the ju licial proceedings for St. Croix county. It, was soon 
after attached to Crawford county, where it remained until 1847. when 
we were again reorganized for judicial purposes, and the county seat 
established at Stillwater, where the first U. S. District court wis h deleft, 
in what is now Minnesota Territory, being the June term of 1848; then 
being no Court House, the court was holden at the store, of John Mc- 
Kussick, by the Hon. Charles Dunn. Judge of said court. 

Stillwiter— this town was first settied, Oct. 10th 1843. by John Mc- 
Kussick, formerly from Maine; Elam Greely from Maine; Calvin F. 
Leach from Vermont, and Elias MeKean from Pennsylvania, Proprie- 
tors of the Stillwater Lumber Company; having selected this- site on ac- 
count of its valuable water power, for the erection of a Saw-Mill, which 
was put in operation early in the spring of 1844. The simple board 
shantiej, of the first settlers, together with the mill rem lined the only 
buildings in the place until the fall of 1844, when the first frame hou-3«i 
was built by A. Northup for a Tavern Stand. 



90 



From this time, the place steadily ^grew in importance. In184G,K 
Post Office was established and Elam Greely appointed Post Master. — 
In 1843, the town was laid out by John McKussick, one ©f the proprie- 
tors thereof. About this time the county commissioners authorized the 
building of a Court House at this place, which was completed in 1850. — 
A School {House was also built here in 1848, schools having been es- 
tablished as early as 1846 and held in private houses. A Presbyterian 
church, being the first in the Town, has been erected the past year, for 
which we are indebted to the zeal and perseverence of the Rev. J. C. 
Whitney, Pastor of the Presbyterian church of this place. The settle- 
ment of the Arcole Mills, which ranks next in age. was commenced in 
1846, by Marti he Mower, W. II. C. Folsom. formerly from Maine; and 
Joseph Brewster from New York, who erected a Saw- Mill al this point. 
Since which many other buildings have been built, which together 
with the mill gives this place the appearance of a thriving little village. 

$20,000 will be expended in Stillwater this year for the erection of a 
Penitentiary for the 'ierritory. 



THE ST. CROIX AND THE PINERIES. 

; 

The distance from Stillwater to the Falls of St. Croix, is 33 measured 
miles. The only visible habitations to be seen as you journey on the 
ice, are the Areola, the Marine, and ihe Osceola -mills. 

Areola has a good water power; but judging from appearances, the 
owners do not make good use of it though probably when they complete 
the mill, the property will be valuable. Fight hundred thousand leet of 
lumber, was sawed at this place, during the last year. 

Four miles above Areola, are the Marine mills. a beautiful location, 
surrounded by fine houses, with good farming land convenient to the 
town. The bustle and activity displayed here, -warrent the conclusion 
that the proprietors are doing "a jam up business." Over two million 
feet of logs were manufactured into boards in 1849 at the Marine. Na- 
ture has bestowed the foundation for a town, an advantage which the 
proprietors seem to be aware of; and they -are improving the village with 
a gradual but sure rapidity. 

Osceola Mills, are situated on the Wisconsin side, twelve miles above 
the Marine, and nine below the Falls of St. Croix. One million and a 
half feet of lumber'was made at this place last season. The owners of 
the mill siiould repair the race, so that they could saw in the winter. 

As the traveller approaches the "narrows," two miles below the Falls, 
the blulfe become^nore prominent, with huge piles of rock towering up 
towards the heavens, almost banishing daylight from the deep chasm, 
through which the river swiftly glides, presenting one of the most roman- 
tic views America-can produce. 

St. Croix contains a population of srx hundred. The streets are regu- 
larly laid out. the buildings are neat and handsomely painted, the citi- 
zens are frank and hospitable, but the land is rocky and mountainous, 
the soil sterile, all having a Yankee appearance. The great mill lies 
still under an injunction — Hercules in handcuff — having succumbed to 
law, which wid in all probability hold sway over the place for years t* 



91 



come. Th^re is a fall of sixteen feet of water, but owing to the pe- 
culiar bend in the river above the falls, great ditlieulty is experi- 
enced in making a permanent dam and boom. It is lo be feared that th« 
full force of the water power can never be controlled so as t> use it for 
manufacturing purposes. It cannot, for one moment be compared with 
St. Anthony. Hesadas the excellent natural water power ofSt. .Anthony, 
it has a good Agricultural district. Not so with St. Croix. It may excel 
other tow. is in tii3 neighborhoo I. s.w the Osceola and the Marine Mills, 
as a manufacturing place; but that is all the glory it can beast of. 

The space of country betwixt St. Croix and Sunrise, (twenty-four 
miles,) is covered with a dense, heavy forest, which would bear inspec- 
tion as No.l timber-lane, anywhere in the State of New York. For miles it 
is a continued sugar-place, which in time will be valuable. There are 
two or three log huts at Sunrise, occupied by people who get their living 
off of the lumbermen. Sunrise took its name in consequence of a band 
of the Sioux a few years ago. slyly attacking and destroying a war party 
of the Chippewas, earlv in the morning. Here is a small grove of pine, 
after which the good land commences, and extends, all the way to Greo- 
ly's Station, on Snake river, a distance of thirty miles. Set this part 
down as the Eden of the Territory. The soil is fertile and rich, the sur- 
face rolling and beautiful, with a plentiful supply of water. In addition 
to ''the many cold springs, which gush out every few rods there are many 
lakes, which are as clear as crystal, fish of different kinds abound in 
the lakes, even to the speckled, New England trout. These excellent 
fish are found in most of the brooks betwixt Sunrise and Greeley's Sta- 
tion. The timber is well mixed, the maple being the most abundant; then 
ash, elm. and the red birch, (which grows to ajgreat height.) are to be 
found, with a pretty good supply ef white and red oak. "The wild red 
plum trees, are common around the prairies, so is the crab apple — and 
the black and red cherry. There a few very large black walnuts; but that 
timber is not plenty. The poplar is quite pletrty, adjoining the prairies. 
From an experiment made by an old back-woodsman, a year or two ago, 
it was ascertained, that the soil in this neighborhood would produce as 
good wheat, oats and potatoes, as the most favored parts of Illinois and 
Wisconsin. .Corn has been cultivated with success by the Indian 
traders. 

Pokagomon, -six miles from Greely's Station, is somewhat noted; as an 
old missionary station. Here the Rev. Frederick Ayers, Mr. Boutwell 
and Mr. Ely remained for a long time; Mr. Russell opened a large farm 
at this po.nt. 

A word on the lumbering resources of the St. Croix. This winter 
there are twenty one teams engaged m the business, with an average of 
thirteen hands to each team. The season thus far, has been favorable. 
Compiringthe present operations with the past, the result of each team's 
labor, will be 1 000,000 of feet; which will make the total amount of lumber 
obtained on the St. Croix and its tributaries, this winter, twenty-one mil- 
lions of feet, equal to eighty-four thousand dollars! Mr. Greeley has two 
teams, and he will clear, at least four thousand dollars, by his winter's 
work. But suc/i groves of pine — and so handy to be obtained! From 
what pine I saw, and by what 1 learnt from others. I judg » there is enough 
to last for fifty years to come, to say nothing of the Rum river pinery, 
which is said to be equal to the St. Croix. Mr. F. Steel has five teams 
■«n Rum river, which is only twenty-five miles west of Greeley's Station. 



92 



I think the lumbering facilities of Minnesota, will eventually absorb most 
of the enterprises and speculations; as a good market can always be 
found for lumber below, which will, at the same time, be the n eans of 
our farmers having a market for all their surplus produce at their door, 
Us lumbermen would rather pay a good priee for supplies obiained in 
Minnesota than to be troubled to get them up from St. Louis or Galena. 



SAINT ANTHONY. 

Saint Anthony City is situated near to and below the Falls of St. An- 
thony. W. A. Cheever is the proprietor, and was laid out 3d January, 
1849; consists of 102 lots. The Falls, including the rapids, make a to- 
la! descent of sixty-fuur feet and ten inches. 

Franklin Steele. Esq., laid out a plot o! lots in 1349, opposite the Fallfl, 
which consists of 53 blocks of lots; in each block thiy are ten lots. — 
The town is called St. Anthony. 

P. Buteheneau. in 1C49, laid out an addition to St. Arthony consist- 
ing of t wenty-three blocks of lots, each Llock containing fourteen lota. 



J. Atwater, Esq., of St. Anthony Falls, writes as follows: 

Sir : — Your esteemed favor of the 19 h Januiry last informing me of 
toy election as -a member ifthe Minnesota Historical Society, his been 
received. Taking a deep interest in the objects which the Society has 
in view, I embrace the opportunity to contribute my mite to the genera! 
etock. by giving you a few items in regard to the location and early his- 
tory of the village of St. Anthony. 

The direction of the Mississippi at this place, and for snveral mile* 
above, is nearly south. Opposite the village, three islands, lying nearly 
in a straight line, one above the o.her. divide the river into two parts — the 
largest body of water flowing on the right hand of the islands. The up- 
per island is small, containing le^s than ten acres of land, and is yet un- 
giirveyed. it is still uncultivated, though the trees with which it was but 
a short time since densely covered, are fast dissappearing, and it will 
soon be brought under tribute to the husbandman. 

The second island is some eight or ten rods below, and contains about 
forty acres. It is a beautiful spot of ground, covered thickly with a great 
variety of thrifty timber, among which the sugar maple is conspicuous. 
The banks are high, bold and rocky, on the upper end, gradually de- 
ascending at the lower, almost to the water's edge. Near the middle of 
the island, a small bluff rises, some ten or fifteen feet high, with a slope 
fes nicely and beautifully turned as if it had been the work of art. it 
forms a semicircular curve at the lower end, gradually widening towards 
the upper, making one of the most charming building sites that can be 
imagined. Near the lower end of this island, commence the rapids in 



93 



the main stream, the water foaming, bounding, and dashing over the 
rocks, which lie scattered across the bed oflhe strcum, as far as the falls. 

Franklin Steele, Esq., owns this island, having entered it in 1848, as 
soon us it was surveyed. It is considered valuable property, the pro- 
prietor, as is reported, having been offered lour thousand dollars lor one 
half of it. 

The third island lies immediately below, so near the last mentioned 
that they were formerly connected by a slight bridge. It contains, on a 
rougli i s imate, some fifteen acres, and is not yet surveyed. A small 
hou>e has been erected upon it by the Mill Company, as a pre-emption 
claim. On each side of this island are the Kails of iSt. Anthony. Below 
the falls are two small islands, near the right shore. The falls of the 
main channel are several rods above those on this side, the greater vol- 
ume of water having worn away the soft crumbling rock mueh faster. — 
The reoedence of the falls on both sides is so rapid as to be almost year- 
ly perceptible ; making the suppositions of some geologists highly plaus- 
ible, th a originally they were as low as Fort Shelling, During the high 
water ot last summer, huge masses of rocks were torn from the island* 
washed tiy the fills, and carried a considerable distance down the river; 
large bl >eks of sand and limestone detached from the ledge of rock, over 
which the water is precipitated; and altogether, the falls underwent a 
greater change than had been observed for many years. 

Franklin Steele, Norman \V. Kitson, and Mr. Stumbough, made a 
claim on lauds in this vicinity, as early as '36 or 37, soon after the In- 
dian title was obtained by government. The land, however, was not 
surveyed and entered till 18-18. Charles Wilson seems to have been 
the firrt American who ever made a permanent residence here, having 
arrived in the spring of 1847. There was then but one house In the 
place, st unling on the bluff some thirty rods belo w the mills, and built of 
togs. Kov.ng Frenchmen and trappers may have temporarily resided 
here, previously J but not as permanent settlers. Mrs. Ard Godfrey 
may claim the honor of having given birth to the Dv^il of the fair daughters 
of8f. .-vfitiioiiy ; and her husband, A. Godfrey, Esq., that ofhaving com- 
menced the lirst improvement of the water power at the F alls. Under hi* 
superintendence, in the fall of 1847, the dam and saw mills owned by tho 
St. Anthony Mill Company, were begun, and the fi st saw put in opera- 
tion in \ugust, 1848. Three others were completed soon after, making- 
four saws now running, of an average capacity ofGJOO leet each per day. 
In the year 185 J, there were about nine million feet of lumber in the 
dam, mueh of which was lost by the high water in the summer. 

K. I\ Russell. Esq., erected the first frame dwelling in the town, m 
J 847. and opened the first store. There are now six stores, and on-© 
hotel, opened July 4th. 1 85 J. There are at present three lawyers, three 
physicians, four clergymen, and the same number of org am zed churches? 
— Presbyterian, Episcopalian, Methodist atid Haptist. The Bapti>ts and 
Episcopalians have erected, though not completed, houses of worship. 
Two school distr.cts, known as Nos. 5 and G. were organized in the vil- 
lage in the fall of I85J. The former numbers 156 scholars, and th# 
latter 115. In addition to the public schools taught in these districts, 
several flourishing select schools have been maintained the past year.— 
The wiiole population ot the place may bo safely estimated atone thoii- 
Aand souls. 

I should have stated, that before the erection of the dam, which baa 



94 



changed the current to some extent, a horse ami wagon has not unfre- 

quently been driven across the main channel, some filly or sixty iod» 
above tiie falls. Some investigations are now being made, to ascertain 
the average annual distance whieh the falls recede, which may, throw 
further light on this interesting subject. 



POINT DOUGLASS. 

A very good account of this village will befound in the following let- 
ter : 

Sir : — Having had the honor of being elected a member of the Histor- 
ical Society of ivlinnesota, the object ot which is, as I suppose; the col> 
lection of facts relative to the early history and settlement of the Territot* 
ry, and feeling, as 1 do, a deep interest in its advancement and prosper- 
ity, [ flatter myself that a feeble effort of mine to aid in the aecomplish-r 
men t of so laudable an object, will not be unacceptable. 

in April last, 1 arrived in the Territory, under a commission from my. 
son, for the purpose of selecting a suitable location lor the establishment 
of some manufacturing operation, as well as to engage in the pursuit of 
agriculture. After examining various sites far the contemplated busi- 
ness, 1 determined to select; the village of Point Douglass, named after 
a distinguished member of Congress,) situate at the junction of Lake St. 
Croix and the Mississippi river, in the county of Washington. This 
town, which has lately been brought into notice, in consequence of the 
erection of an extensive steam saw and grist mill, by Jas. L. Woodruffc* 
Bros., is now beginning, to attract attention by those in search of a f uture 
home. and. whose anticipation, fro. u present indication, cannot fail to be ■ 
realized — the approaching spring promising quite an augmentation to its 
present population, many lots having been sold tj mechanics and others, 
who contemplate improving and occupying them. 

In 1833, ten acres of :he present town siie was claimed by Mr. Joseph 
Mozoc, who erected and occupied the tirsihouse, (a log cabin, now stand- 
ing on the bank of the river.) in the present town ; and in 1340. Mr. Cal- 
vin Tuttle became the purchaser of this land, who extended his claim to 
360 acres, which was subsequently, and in the year 1844. sold to Messrs, 
Burris & Hurtzsll, merchants of this place. In 1839, Mr. Jos Langtoo 
claimed about ten acres of land adjoining the above, which was subse- 
quently sold to Capt. Frazier, who increased the amount to eighty acres, 
which was. in 1843, sold to B. & M., and in 1844, purchased by Mr* 
David Hone-— this latter gentleman having at this time adjoining the vil- 
lage, about one hundred and, ninety acres of land, which he has by in- 
dustry and gwo.l m magement, succeeded in putting under fence and in 
a good state of cultivation ; which h is produced, lor several successive 
years, crops that will average to the acre, of wheat, forty bushels; corn, 
forty bushels : barley, forty five bushels; potatoes, two to three hundred 
bushels; all of which, owing, to the great home demand, has realized a 
profitable return for the labor expended. Other gentlemenin the neigh- 
borhood h.-ivu been equally s-ujoessful in r.us.ng crops, although on a 



95 



smaller scale. The lands lying between the river and Lake St. Croix 
beinjr of fine quality, and filling up with an industrious ami intelligent 
class of citizens, who appear determined lo test fully the character of tha 
•oil, and provide for themselves and families at least a comfortable home. 

In th i ye n- lo43, this town was surveyed an I laid out by Mr. II. Wil- 
aon, for the proprietors, in lots of fifty feet front by one hundred and 
fifty feet deep, the streets running at right angles, and generally fifty 
feet wide, ami named.agreeable to the tastes or notions of the proprietors. 
The land rising gradually from the mississ'ppi river, which is its south- 
ern and principal front, until it reaches the base of a gradually rising 
hill, the summit of which is about one hundred feet above the summit or 
level of the lake and river; from this elevation a very extensive and in- 
teresting prospect may be had of the lake, the Indian Unds on the west 
bank of the Mississippi, and the fine lands of Wisconsin. The eastern 
front, or lake side of this town, from its elevated position, will be the 
most agreeable .and pjoasant for family residences; the surface being 
gently rolling, and affording easy grades for draining the town, and 
having sufficient timber, which can be turned to good account in orna- 
menting and shading t/lic streets and residences* 

W ithin the limits of the town as laid out. there is at present six dwell- 
ing houses, one tavern, two stores, one blacksmith shop, one steam saw 
and grist mill, and one log school house, where are taught the chiLlren 
of both sexes the first rudiments of an english education. This house* 
which is but 18 by 20 feet in size; is also used as a. place of public wor- 
ship, where the word of life is freely dispensed on. stated Sabbaths, by 
the Rev. Mr. Hall, of the Presbyterian church, the Rev. Messrs. Breck 
and VVilcoxon of the Episcopal church, and the ivev. Mr. Dow, of th«* 
Methodist denomination; the citizens generally being in attendance and 
appear to take a lively interest in the success and prosperity of tho 
church. 

To those in search of health and pleasure, Point Douglass and sur- 
rounding country present, many attractions; the fine air, the beautiful 
lake, where fish of various kind abound, and where those in quest. of, 
aquatic excursions, can no where fmd a .more suitable field for such en- 
joyment, it being in contemplation by some of the citizens to provide fast 
skiing! boats for the accommodation of those who m;iy sojourn among us. 

A visit to Vermillion river and falls, on the Indian lands, is no less 
attractive: the river winding its way unseen through an extensive and 
beautiful prairie until within a short distance of the precipice, then rush- 
ing with all the wild confusion of a Niagara or St. Anthony, over crag- 
gy and disjointed rocks of about one hundred feet in depth until it reach- 
es, the river below, and finally finds a rest in ihe bosom of the " Father 
of Waters" one mile above this town; the river above and below the falls 
affording fish of fine quality, such as Trout. Bass. Pickerel, Chub. &c. 
A ride of a few miles to Rush River, in W isconsin, through a fertile 
country of wood land and prairie, is no less inviting to those in search cf 
piscatorial employment, abounding as other rivers and lakes oi the coun- 
try with fi.sh of excellent quality. 

The late appropriations of Congress for improvements within the Ter- 
ritory, makes Point Douglass the starting point of two principal roads, 
it will no doubt become the landing place for all those who idesire to pass 
by land through the country to the neighboring towns of the Terr.tory, 
•fcs a relief from :he monotony and fatigue of a long steam boat trip. 



95 



from below. Vehicles for the accommodation of those who desire this- 
mode of conveyance, will be provided bv some of its citizens the ap- 
proaching season. 

WM. WOODRUFF. 

Point Douglass, Feb. 1, 186T 

Schcol Trustees. — George W. Lambert, Ilarley D. White, Levi 
Hurtzell. 

Clerk. — David Hone. 

Teacher. — John 11. Craig, Jos. A. Boyer. 



WABASHAW. 

Alex's Bailey. Esq., of Wabashaw in tins Territory, kindly furnishes 
the following m relation to the '•liail-breetP' tract and that section ol the 
•count i y. * 

Sir. — 1 have before me your note of the 3Cth ult.. asking information 
about the Half breed tract. A description of its soil, mineral, agricul- 
tural and ci si ni! icial i (sources, the fnstoiy ol the* setth mem ol *'\\ aba* 
chaw," &j. i Imve so 'little lime and am so l.ttle accustomed to writ.ng; 
on such subjects that 1 fear ii will give you but little satisfaction. 

In October 1849. !he county of Wabashaw was organized, and at- 
tached to U ashu gton county lor judicial puiposcs. \ie have one jus- 
tice of the p ace. 

The town 61 Wabashaw, and county seal of Wabashaw crunty is 
situated about four miles below Lake Pepin, on a beautiful bank above 
high water, atonhng during the shipping season, the best of steamboat 
landing. It has a ohathohc Chapel, a Justice of the Peace, a Post (Jfl.ce, 
a. store, a blacksmith and. Wagon shop with a population not to ex- 
ceed fuy. It is sadly in want of Ph\ siciai s for the mind, body and 
«oul, we have no? a school in the whole county. 

The town stands on a point of peculiar lo< mation; firm the appearance 
of the country around, I judge it must have once been an Island; it is ;n 
high water an Island in fact, caused by two outlets Of the "Jiiviere (ha 
Kmbarras ' on the east and west of it. the one on the west nn.nii g up as 
it were i.ttu the M^si.-s { pi ; beve the le v, n isoi-ly a Ira'thol t\m i v<r 
in high water, and is bounded west by a spur ot'biutFs terminating six.ee 
seven nut; s below Lake Pepin, forming also the eastern termini ol the 
valley of ih- L^nbarras. through which it flows, from win nee it continues} 
its course through rich bottom lauds, skirted on the east by the Cypres! 
prairie, and on the west by table lands and slopes which in their turn, 
are bounded by the bluffs, when it joins the Mississippi about two miles 
above W inte Water river atid about twenty five miles below Lake Pepin. 
The outlet or ytoilgh running almost parallel with the Mississippi, leave* 
ft strip of land between it and the Mississ ppi of from halt' a mile to be* 
Sween two ; n 1 three in width, and in length five, forming a plateau or ridge 
terminating at a bieadow of several miles in circumference, extendi! g ?<* 
the Cypress prairie and bottom lands of the "Embarrass," this same 
meadow continues also on the east side and terminates at the grind e»« 
c&nipni&iit, (a piumincnt point on the Mississippi three miles below the 



97 



town;) hence you will perceive the plateau or ridge at the upper end of 
the town, is like an Island in the middle of a large lake, a fact realized by 
last summer's freshet, when the Whole of the meadow lay several feet 
under water. The other outlet of the Embarra s east of this ridge unlike 
the one on the west, is a rapid stream with a fall of several feet, and i* 
connected with small lakes fed by tiie iim jarrass, this btream washes the 
base of the upper portion of Cypress prairie, and joins the Mississippi 
just above Grand Encampment, leaving a narrow strip between it and 
the Mississippi. The whole of this ridge with a very small exception, is 
of the richest kind of soil, with a beauiiiul little prairie near its upper ex- 
tremity, containing about twelve hundred acres, skirted all round with 
Burr and White oak, and it will average about forty feet above the high 
water; the soil a rich black loam from eight to ten inches thick, resting on 
yellow clay. 

On the other side of the slough, west of the "Ridge" (the valley of 
which is at no point more than a fourth of a mile in width) is another 
plateau or belt of land of similar description, extending to the spur of the 
bluffs already mentioned; this belt is from one to two miles in width, and 
about three in length, having several wide wooded valleys running out of 
the bluffs to the belt, it has a small prairie like the one on the ridge al- 
ready described, and is about the same in extent, at the upper end of 
which is a running stream of pure water, capable, of propelling mills, it 
comes out of the only valley through which a road can convenienly bo 
laid out, that will connect W abushaw with the upper portion of this Ter- 
ritory, and is the one chosen by the Government party, which lately laid 
out t lie road from Mendota to this place. This stream joins the Missis- 
sippi at the base of the bluffs, about a mile below Reed s landing and 
forms the upper boundary ot this plateau. It is on this belt, and on a high 
bank near the Mississippi that the Patriarc h of the place has chosen for 
his residence, Mr. Augustin Rocque, a lia'f breed, who came here in 
1833, and was followed by another Half-breed by the name of Duncan 
Campbell. The latter has since died, but the family still occupies the old 
location, these two families form the bulk of the population on this sid© 
of the slough. I must not omit however an American family by the 
name of Smith, who have chosen to locate themselves at the gorge of the 
Valley, on the stream right where the road laid out this fall, crosses it, 
those three families number altogether about ten individuals. 

About a mile above the upper end of this belt is Reeu's Landing (so 
called) but more properly Hudson's Landing, it is opposite the mouth of 
the Chippewa River, and is a desirable point, taken in connection with 
the trade of the valley of the Chippewa river, it is a fine landing and is 
the point of transhipment for all the supplies wanted on that river, and is 
destined to be a place of note. Hudson's widow still occupies it. she is a 
Half-Breed and is married to a son o** Mr. Rocque, both are claimants 
in the Half breed tract. Here is a well furnished" store, kept by a Mr. 
Richards, who is a Licensed Trader, also the Post Master. The bulk 
of the trade carried on by this gentleman is with the lumbermen of the 
Chippewa. There are three other families besides those mentioned above 
of American origin which make together a population of about twenty- 
five. 

About Iwo and a half miles above is the Indiaiy Blacksmith, a more 
injudicious selection for an establishment of the kind, could not have 
' H s 7 



08 



been made, it is out of the way, both for the upper and tower Sioux (for 
whose benefit it is located.) This family numbers about ten individr 
uals. 

Twelve miles above on the margin of the Lake near "Point no Point/* 
upon a high and beautiful bank, stand two unfinished stone buildings- 
being the residence of James W ells, who married a daughter ot the late 
Duncan Graham, a trader outfitted by the Fur Company, whose family 
number about twelve. 

Onwards towards the head of the lake, about ten miles, in front of a 
bold cliff, the termination of the spur of bluffs above W ell's cove, upon 
a high bank, is located a Mr. Bullard, an American, who (with his iam- 
ily) established himself here last summer; this family consist of about 
five individuals. 

Six miles from this, (the head of Lake Pepin,) you come to the "barn," 
the upper boundary of the Half breed tract, immediately above itis'-fied 
Wing Village" — an extenshe cluster ol bark houses, the summer resi- 
dence of that band of Sioux, it is also amission station, and the res- 
idence of the Farmer for the band, here is a trading store, the several 
families here constitute a population of forty. There is a school, w hich 
is well attended by Indian children, and Mr. Hancock the Missionary, 
is much esteemed by them. 

The Barn (so called) is on® of the most imposing views on the ur per 
Mississippi, — as you descend the river, the curve is so great above the 
village, and the timber so thick, in the Island immediately in front of it, 
that you. come within a few hundred yards before it is perceived, when 
all at once it faces you with all its imposing boldness, appears to block, 
your passage. It is a bluff, of about five hundred feet high, the noithern 
side of which is almost a perpendicular line from the top to the base, 
and is washed by the Mississippi, it is a detached bluff of about half a 
mile in length, and seems to have been torn from the other bluffs by some 
convulsion of nature. Why it is called the "Barn" I never could learn. 
At a short distance above here is the outlet of the Cannon river, which 
flows through a most delightful valley; one of its forks intermingles with 
the waters . of the Blue Earth, a tributary of the St. Peter, that falls into it 
about two hundred miles above its junction with the Mississippi. 

At a treaty held in Prairie du Chien in 1.330. the " Mendawahkanton" 
band of Sioux bestowed on their relatives of mixed blood, that tract of 
country now commonly called the "Half- breed tract," it embraces the 
whole of the west bank of Lake Pepin, and some portion of the Missis- 
sippi banks above and below it and contains, in my opinion, four hun- 
dred thousand acres-, the United States Government sanctioned the gift,, 
allowing the Half-bloods to hold it in common, by the same title other 
Indian lands are held. This title of occupancy, is therefore the only 
one they have. ; i 

The tract is descr ibed in said treaty as follows: "Beginning a at place 
called the Barn, below and near the village of the Red Wing Chief, and 
running back 15 miles, thence in a parallel line with Lake Pepin and the 
Mississippi, about 32 miles, to a point opposite Beef or G Beui river, 
thence. 15 miles to the Grand Encampment, opposite the river aforesaid.*' 
Lake Pepin ia 21 miles long and about 2h miles wide. 

in the treaty relative to this matter, are these words: "The Chiefs in 
Council assembled, having asked permission to bestow on their Hall- 
breed relatives" &c. This would lead one to believe that the chiefs of 



99 



all bands represented in that Council, were parties to the donation, and 
were equally owners of t lie> tract; which was not the fact. The land so 
donated, was exclusively the property of the "Medawahkanton" Sioux, 
and they it was who bestowed it on their Half-breed relatives, and none 
but Medawahkanton half-blood have a right to participate in the benefits 
Thereof. Half-bloods of the other bands claim, and will press their 
claims no doubt. 

The treaty of 1837, ratified in 1838, adds to my conviction on this 
subject, that this band of Sioux were looked upon by the Government, as 
exclusively the owners of the lands they occupied, and acting on that 
principle, purchased of them their possessions on the east of the Missis- 
sippi. To them alone inures the benefit of that sale, if then there was 
no community of interests in the last, why should there hj in the 
first? 

The rights and boundaries of the Indians to their possessions are as 
well defined and understood by them, as if they were held by patent un- 
der the great seal of the United States. 

The tract so granted, contains about 400,000 acre3. and includes 
in it a large body of fertile land, well adapted for agriculture, and is well 
watered by numerous streams. 

The bluffs forming the eastern boundary of the valley of the "Embar- 
rass," will also form the southern boundary of the "tract;" a more durable 
one could not be found, it is the termination of the spur of blufls already 
mentioned, west of the slough that divides the town of VVabashaw from the 
belt on which resides Mr. Augustus Rocque. it is so directly in line, 
east and west, with the "O'lieuf river;" that the difference would be but 
a few yards. From that bluff commences more properly the valley of 
the tt Riviere des Embarrass," in English, "the river of obstructions." — 
It flows through the whole width of the Half-breed tract. The bottom 
lands are finely wooded, with Rock and Soft Maple, Black Walnut and 
Butternut, Ash, Hickory, Hackberry, Cotton Wood, Poplar, Elm, White 
Oak, &c, the thrifty growth of which indicate a rich and generous soil. 
Nearly all of these bottom lands are subject to sudden inundations. — 
These sudden overflows however recede, as fast as they come. Prairies 
are found alternately on the river, first on one side and then on the oilier, 
as the river approaches or recedes from the bluffs. From the top of the 
bluffs, a commanding view of the valley and surrounding country is ob- 
tained; the river looks like u huge snake wending its vva.yout of the val- 
ley. Many farms can be had, far above the reach of the high water, and 
for a grazing country, this valley cannot be surpassed; the bluffs on the 
east side of it shelters it from the north. There is not a shower but what 
brings down with it its quota of fat from the uplands, causing vegetation 
to grow with a luxuriance almost miraculous. The valley of the ".Riviere 
des Embarrass./' is, bound to be a gem in Minnesota; the numerous 
streams that feed the main river, pessess superior water privileges; some 
of them are truly magnificent, with volumes of water capable of propelling 
the largest mills. They all have trout fish in them; I mention tnis fact, 
fo prove the purify arid coolness of the waters. The streams are fed by 
springs and fountains gushing out of the base of the adjoining blufis, from 
whence they go gurgling over pebbly bottoms to add their mite to thtv 
parent stream, which in its turn rushes in cascades and rapids towards 
the "Embarrass. : * 

Iron ore abounds in the country, and lead is found on the surface, the 



100 



mineral resources of this region has engaged the attention of a govern- 
ment geological party as far up as the second falls of the river; several 
line specimens ol lead ore were picked up by them. 

It is not however only in this valley that good land is to be found, trav- 
ellers ascending the Mississippi, would form unfavorable opinions from 
theruggid and broken appearance of the bluffs adjoining the lake; those 
appearances are deceptive, however, for on the summit of them the coun- 
try is almost level, extending back; and a healthy growth of large oak 
timber characterizes the face of the country. 

Wheat, Barley, Kye, Oats, and all kinds of small grain will mature 
well. Kools ofall descriptions produce well; potatoes, the finest ibr fla- 
vor, I have ever tasted in this upper country grow, here, apples, pears, 
plums, cherries, grapes would 1 think, produce well. I have lived in 
Lower Canada, about the region of Montreal, where those trees are culti- 
vated, and am satisfied the climate herd is much better adapted to their 
cultivation. 1 judge also from the great quantity and variety of wild fruit 
found all over the tract; plums rich in flavor and as large as pigeon's eggs 
are common; the current bushes which 1 have planted, produce well and 
make asfine a jelly as is to be found any where — as for straw and other 
berries, the country cant be beat — to what perfection they could be 
brought by cultivation, (for I speak of them in their wild state, orchards 
of Crab-apple trees, producing fruit; equal to any part, grow here in the 
wildest prolusion. 

The commercial advantages of " Wabashaw" will be greet when fully 
developed. Situated below Lake Pepin, and but three miles below the 
Chippewa river; the entire trade ofthat valley, with all its tributaries must 
centre here. The settlements about the lakes will, like those above, 
contribute more or less to the commerce of this point. Six weeks naviga- 
tion longer in the year than the country above is a great advantage. — 
Wisconsin has no point on which she can compete and secure to herself 
the trade of her own valley. The country for miles below the Chippewa 
is low and subject to annual inundation, therefore Wabashaw will be 
what it is now the point of transhipment for all the supplies wanted up 
there. " Wabashaw" possesses all the elements to make it a great com- 
mercial depot, her facilties for building material will aid her; her bluff* 
supply both lime and limestone, her banks the best of clay for brick, the 
Chippewa and St. Croix rivers with lumber to any amount, and as ironi* 
found all over the country, what is to prevent Foundries from supply- 
ing iron in sufficient quantity for consumption and in a few years for ex- 
port. Boats will be built here, the materials for doing so are at our 
doors. 



ITASCA. 

Thomas Ac Holmes, N. Myrick and others laid out a town in thf> 
summer of I #49, which they call Itasca, and which is situated on the 
east bank of the Mississippi river, in Benton county. The town is I&id 
out into thirty-five blacks, each block containing twelve lots. 



101 



TAYLOR'S FALLS. 

This town is only a few clays old, and VV. H. C. Folsom says of it: — 
"Buildings are going up, and in contemplation, which the wants of our 
country demand; among them is a public house. We shall ask Cor a post 
oMoe soon. Our point or town has many natural advantages, which 
must eventually give us an industrious population. When we take a 
geographical view of our country, and our nearness to Lake Superior, 
we can prophecy our future greatness as a town." 



Dole's Mill. — This snug little grist mill on Trout Creek, Minnesota, 
between Stillwater and Point Douglass, is doing a good business, and 
will, ere long, reward the proprietor for his toil and privations as an in- 
dustrious pioneer. We are reminded by this enterprize. not to despise 
"the day of small things." In starling this giisi mill he has rendered a 
service to the emigrants in Minnesota and Wisconsin. The grain at 
his mill is well ground, as our daily experience bears testimony. 



LAC-QUI-PARLE. 

The following is furnished by the Hon. Martin McLeod, of Lac-qui- 
Parle, to wit : 

From Mendota to Lac-qui-Parle, the distance, as it is usually travel- 
ed, is 22J miles. This is by land. The distance by water, following 
the innumerable windings of the St. Peters or Minnesota river, is 380 
miles. 

The route by land is on the south side of the St. Peters, through a fine 
country, diversified by picturesque scenery, and through the w Grand 
Bois," or Big Woods," seventy miles, to Traverse des ^.Sioux, where 
the traveller traverses the St. Peters river. 

At this place there is a mission station of the American Board, and % 
trading post. From this point, the traders' road runs on the north-east 
side of the St. Peters, through level prairies, until it reaches within a 
day's journey of the source of this river, near Lake Traverse. 

Lay-qui-Parle, or Mdi-eiddon, in the Dakota, means literally the lake 
that speaks, and might appropriately be called "'Echo Lake." 

The ea ly French vovageurs almost invariably interpreted Indian 
jnames with a singular felicity and correctness ; hence, Lac-qui-Parle is 
a nearer approach to the aboriginal meaning than any words we can 
substitute without abreviation ; and 44 Echo Lake" is the future name I 
bespeak for this fine sheet of water. It is embosomed at the foot of a 
great plain extending forty-five miles in width, from the declivities of the 
Coteau de Prairie to the* margin of the lake on its souih-east side, while 
on the north-east side, level prairies of vast extent dotted with pleasant 
groves, reach to the " grand bois," of the Chippewa country. Through 
ihese plains wind small streams fringed with timber, which take their 
rise in a chain of lakes, far to the eastward. 

Below the lake, but within view of it, at three miles distance, there is 
a trading post and mission station of the American Board. 



102 



The mission has been established fourteen years. Two very respect- 
able and comfortable dwellings are occupied by ihe mission families. — 
Their place of worship, which is also used as a school for the instruction 
of Indian children and the children of the whites and hall-breeds em- 
ployed at the trading post, is a commodious and elegant building, made 
of sun-dried brick of the most durable quality, which was prepared on 
the spot, and put up under the supervision of the missionaries them- 
selves. It is certainly worthy of notice in the records of the annals, as 
the first brick church built in Minnesota, 220 miles west, as travelled 
from St. Paul, its capital. 

The Fur trade with the Dakotas on the upper Minnesota must have 
existed at least a century, and Lac-qui-Parle was undoubtedly one of the 
spots earliest chosen lor that purpose; but without the opportunity of 
consulting with some of the oldest voyageurs, at this time we have not 
correct data to determine this with certainty. 

The early explorations of the upper St. Peters, and the establishment 
of the first trading posts, with the vicissitudes and romantic adventures of 
the pioneer traders, will probably be the subject of a paper to be present- 
ed at the next annual meeting of the Historical Society. 

The scenery around Lac-qui-Parle is grand and picturesque, without 
any striking or bold features. The soil is fertile, and produces well all 
the cereal grains and vegatables ol every kind in sufficient abundance, 
and of the very best quality. For grazing it is unsurpassed during the 
summer; and in the winter the great bottoms of the St. Peters afford 
#ood shelter, and, except when the snow is deep, plenty of nutritious 
ibod for cattle and horses. The climate is not surpassed by any other 
portion of Minnesota. 



NAVIGATION OF THE MINNESOTA BY STEAMBOATS. 

On Friday the 28th day *of June, 1850, that enterprising steamboat, 
the Anthony Wayne, enrolled her name in the annals of our Territory; 
and proved herself worthy of the name of gallant Mad Anthony. The 
first boat to throw a bow-line ashore under the foaming falls of Saini 
Anthony, amid the very roar and spray of the cataract. 

This same steamboat, in the month of June. 1850, made a trip up the 
Minnesota or St. Peters river, demonstrating thai that river, (no boat 
ever having before gone further up that stream than Little Sixes' village, 
a feat performed in 1842,) meandering a boundless extent of plains as 
fertile as the shores of the Nile, is actually navigable for steamboats of 
light draught, in any stage of water, for more than one hundred and fifty 
miles; more than this, she afforded hundreds af our citizens and stran- 
gers actual, visual proof, that through the very heart of Minnesota; east 
and west, extends a country, not surpassed in fertility by the lands of the 
Wabash valley — well wooded, beautiful as paradise to the eye, the fair- 
est, loveliest land, by the united testimony of all, that ever the light of the 
sun shone upon. 

The Anthony Wayne made a second trip up the Minnesota river, to 
near the Blue Earth river, starting from Saint Paul on the 18th July, 
1850. During this trip, near Traverse des Sioux, the company on board 
of the boat held a meeting, passed resolutions, &c. Col. Charles S. 



103 

Todd.- and George L. Becker, Esq., were called on and made short ad- 
dresses. Col. Todd said: 

" lie thanked them for the honor that they had done him in calling 
upon him to preside over and to address the meeting. 

44 We were here as pioneers', at least as steamboat pioneers, of th^nevv 
and beautiful country, and of this river which had never before been 
traversed by the meanest of that invention which the genius of a Fulton 
had brought 10 the aid di man, and by which he had been enabled to 
•subdue difficulties and to increase the opportunities and conveniences 
of inter communication between distant places. He, too, had been a 
Pioneer! — if not before in this new and interesting state of Minnesota, at 
lea**t of the 'Dark and Uioody Ground' of the west; in that west, at a 
time when all the States to the north and west of 'Kentucky, now con- 
4aih'ing vast 'multitudes of contented and happv beings, and constituted but 
one large extended and unexplored region, which had not yet been sub- 
dued by the efforts of man to the uses of civilization, he found himself in 
this remote region, exploring a river heretofore almost unexamined, and 
that, too, with all the conveniences furnished by a fine and well furnish- 
ed steamboat, ect. 

He then spoke of the advantages of Minnesota to the agriculturist, the 
emigrant, and of its rivers, which would in a short time become garden 
spots. He gave a detail of the attempt of some Frenchmen to settle at 
the mouth of the Blue Earth River, and of their taking some of the earth 
to France for examination. 

Mr. Becker spoke of the gratification of the company in this trip; of the 
beautiful scenery and noble country they had viewed, andthe advantages 
Minnesota possessed for the agriculturist. 

Glancing down the future, he alluded to the time, not now far distant, 
when by the genius of Fulton, and the change which his discoveries had 
produced, upon the country; the plains and hills now vacant, would be 
well cultivated and swarm with a busy population; when the school-house 
and the church should adorn the teeming population of these prairies 
and rich valleys. "Where," said Mr. B., "shall we find a more beau- 
tiful vine-yard given into the hand of man to keep and to dress than is 
here spread out before us; and in the examination of which we have been 
£0 agreeably employed for the last day or two?" 

Some time in July, 1850, the steamboat Nominee made a trip up the 
Minnesota river — going up further that the first trip of the Anthony 
Wayne. The last trip of the season up the river, was made by the 
•steamboat Yankee, starting from St. Paul on the 22d July, 1850. The 
"'Pioneer' 1 gives the following account of this trip: 

"Object in Exploring. — The people of Saint Paul, mostly congre- 
gated here within the year and a halflast past, from every quarter, 
drawn to this town by a conviction now ripening into absolute certainty, 
that here is destined shortly to be the emporium of the trade of all that 
portion of the temperate zone lying north of it, and extending from the 
whores of the great lakes to the banks of the Upper Mississippi; embracing 
a larger area of trade^ without a rival, and that too, in the very heart of 
a continent, than any other town perhaps in the world; situated in the 
centre of the temperate zone, and at the extreme northern point of steady 
«team navigation by the class of boats profitably employed in the trade 
above Saint Louis, have deemed no sacrifice of time and money too 
great, to explore the interior of Minnesota. While the enterprize of 



104 



St Anthony, has opened navigation by steam the present season to Sauk 
Rapids, on the Upper Mississippi, arid demonstrated ♦.he practicability 
of* running small steamboats up that river to the falls of Pokagoman, a 
distance of 600 miles above us, Saint Paul has < xplored the other branch 
of the river above us. the Minnesota, (heretofore more often called the 
Saint Peter, a name which it will probably be known by.) for a distance 
of 300 miles; for the first time startling with the noise of the steam pipe, 
the most glorious wilderness that ever smiled under the hand of the 
Creator. 

We have deemed the exploration of the Minnesota river, an object 
of primary importance on several accounts. As citizens of Saint Paul, 
lying but five or six miles below thejunotion of the Minnesota and Mis- 
sissippi rivers, the natural and inevitable point of transhipment f rom tlje 
larger steamboats running below, to the smaller boats of different con- 
struction, adapted to the navigation of the rivers above us, we wished to 
know and that the world should know, that the navigable waters above, 
us, tributary to our trade, irrigate an extent of land as great and at least 
as fertile as the whole length of the Mississippi from St. Louis to St. Paul. 
Ail this has been demonstrated. 

Again, it will be remembered that the whole of the west bank of the 
Mississippi from the Iowa line to the northern boundary of Minnesota, 
is Indian territory; and that the whole country watered by the Minnesota, 
belongs to the Sioux Indians — that i;»: a poition of the continent hitherto 
almost unexplored and unknown — and that Government has now ap- 
pointed commissioners to treat for its purchase. A better knowledge of 
its situation, resources, and true vilue, seemed indispensable to enable 
the Commissioners and the Senate of the United States to estimate pro- 
perly what might be a fair equivalent for lands to be treated for. 

The first exploration was made three or four weeks since, by the An- 
thony Wayne; which boat went up to the head of the Rapids, distance of 
about sixty-five miles by the riv( r and then returned. Shortly after, the 
Nominee went up still higher, left her shingle upon the bank and retmn- 
ed. The Anthony Wayne on her return from below, was again char- 
tered by our people, and reached a point within about fifteen miles of 
the Blue Earth river; where she planted her shingle upon the shore, an- 
nouncing herself as the first steamboat in those waters, ai d then return- 
ed. In the mean time arrangements were made with the steamboat 
Yankee, Capt. Harris, to come prepared with fuel and provisions, to take 
a party as far as possible up the river, h is of this voyage of the steam- 
boat Yankee, far above the Blue Earth river, that we are now writing. — 
The aggregate cost in cash actually paid by St. Paul, in these four expe- 
ditions up the Minnesota river, much exceeds two thousand dollars. 

The Pioneer remarks further: The river continued apparently of the 
same width, without sand banks, without islands, without tributaries, but 
with a current increasing in velocity as we ascended, and the channel 
crooked beyond parallel, and with many snags and logs in the short 
bends. At length we came in sight of the missinary station at Traverse 
des Sioux, (the Sioux crossing) on the north side of the river, situated 
upon a wide slope of the prairie, which lose gradually iicm the Laiiks 
of the river and extended far back, covered with luxuriant grass. — 
Three neat white buildings belonging to the mission, and se\eral Indian 
huts and lodges were distant a few rods from the bank, amidst fields of 
well cultivated corn, beans, and potatoes, as promising crops as we ever 



105 



*aw. There was also a small patch of wheat just reaped, which looked! 
very plump and heavy. On we sped. Upon the south side ol the river 
were Indian corn fields, unfenced, upon the river bottom, the coi n plant- 
ed very -thick and looking like a perfect jungle, almost asolid mass of dark 
green vegetation, crowned with countless spindles. Spreading away a 
mile or so, this bottom, which is doubtless sometimes covered by the 
flood, (perhaps annually) is enclosed by a circling amphitheatre ol 'hills 
covered with forest trees ; while on the north side of the river is Traverse 
<ies Sioux, at the neck of a large peninsular, made by a bend in the riv- 
er, which, altera progress of three or lour miles further, brought us back 
again within half a mile of the mission. A little above this point we 
stopped to wood; passengers, crew, and all. assisting. Two or three 
painted Sioux horsemen came galloping up from the Traverse and seem- 
ed to claim tribute. We made them a present of some corn. At a short 
distance above this place, we found on the north shore a quantity of old 
rails; which, as they seemed useless to the owner, as they offered no 
protection to his corn field, we took, the Captain paying a lair price for 
them lo a gentleman on board, to give to the owner. 

Turtle Bend. — By sunr.se on the third morning, the Yankee was 
again in motion. Here we turn short to the right, then to the left — the 
boat under excellent management. Now we come to the shingle which 
the Wayne first put up, but of which she afterwards repented, having the 
fear of the Yankee before her eyes; on a few miles further — and there, 
on the s^uth bank, is the shingle of the Wayne, at the foot of a snaggy 
bend, from which the Wayne turned back, defying any boat to go higher. 
Here was a sharp bend in the river, and in it four or five snags and im- 
bedded trees. We reconnoitred. The i ankee laughed right out, and 
just screamed and bellowed at the idea of stopping there. W e went 
ashore on the north bank, it being a deposite of coarse, clean, sharp 
sand, the best ever seen for mortar, and in the sand found turtles' eg<rs. 
Judge Goodrich proposed that the bend be called Turtle Bend ; and so 
Turtle Bend is it from henceforth. By way of extreme but needless pre- 
caution, the passengers and crew took a line ashore upon this sandy 
beach, and held the Yankee's head to the north shore, the snags being 
in the centre bend of the stream, while she rounded up, hugging the shore 
and keeping entirely aloof from all snags; alter which we went on our 
way rejoicing ; but by this time the heat was becoming intolerable. 

Blue Earth River. — What unrivalled beauty of landscape! now we 
pass through dense forests; now through prairie, and anon stretches 
away a vast savanna of tall prairie gtass, thousands of acres in extent, 
with a vista of high prairie opening in th 1 distance between forests, as 
far as the sight can extend. Approaching the mouth of the Blue Earth 
river, never visited by any exploring party before, since the days of Lft 
Seu:\ in 1698, we saw a high mound, almost a mountain, looming up in 
the distance, which we soon found was near the angle of the confluence 
of the Blue Earth and the Minnesota. Here our company were startled 
by a cry of buffalo; which, however, proved to be nothing but a drove of 
moss-covered boulders, faraway upon the sloping prairie. A log house 
became visible upon Blue Earth mound, and a perso.i (some French 
trader) was looking down the river in mute astonishment no doubt, to see 
the approach of a steamboat. Now we have reached the mouth of Blue 
Earth, the first tributary of the Minnesota from its mouth up. It is a 
stream apparently about half as large as the Minnesota, and not naviga- 



106 



ble for more than a mile or two, certainly, being small and rapid ; but in 
looking up its charming valley, there seemed to be resting there a kind 
of poetic beauty, unlike the rivers of earth. We slopped not, but plowed 
the waters of the Minnesota, still deep, and of a width but little diminish- 
fd, changing our course now from the south west to the north-west. — 
Wood : On the south bank of the river, the shore now resounds with the 
blows of axes, and all hands and the passengers are busy in cutting and 
carrying fuel lor the boat. Here, in the woods, we found the red rasp- 
berry, and the choke-cherry, and precisely such a growth of wood and 
of grasses as we used to see in the rich little intervals of New Hampshire. 
With a small supply of wood, we hurried on again, being now in the 
Great Woods ; that immense body ol timber, twenty or thirty miles wide, 
which commences at or near Crow Wing on the Mississippi river, and 
runs one hundred and fifty miles south, here crossing the Minnesota riv- 
er like a vast belt. Wonderful stream! We still thread its deep, 
crooked channel, measuring eight or nine feet deep, with no difficulty 
except the 400. great length of the boat. The face of the country every- 
where denotes great fertility. Here we see fresh tracks of the buffalo, 
where .they have crumbled down the stee r p bank of alluvian, in their haste 
to drink at the river. Now, far to the north of us. opens a vista ol wide 
interval covered with grass, reaching away between the forests on each 
;^ide of the river, until the scene dissol ves in the hazy blue of the far off 
horizon. Hot! Oh, how hot! We stop for more wood ; not a breath of 
ail*. Such heat we never before experienced ; and as for assisting to 
wood, it was wholly out of the question. The least exercise, produced 
a violent throbbing of the temples and darkness of vision. We thought of 
Calvin Edson, and " sighed for such a frame as his." That day, at 
Traverse des Sioux, the thermo-meter stood at 104 Farenheit, in the 
.shade. 

Cotton Wood River. — Sunset found us emerging fro-m the Great 
"Woods, and all exhausted with the intolerable heat. The Yankee stag- 
gered up against the north bank of the river, and there lay panting in the 
water like a weary Newfoundland dog ; while the great sun, with his 
furnaces blazing, sunk behind the distant Missouri. That night there 
was no dancing upon the Yankee; but there were several musquitoes to 
combat, and there was no sleep till morn. The ice was nearly exhaust- 
ed ; much of the dry fuel was exhausted, of which it was indispensable 
to have a supply to make a full head of steam on our return down the 
river, in order to run the short bends and .pass the snags with any sort 
of safety. At about nine o'clock in the evening, some of the ladies being 
almost sick, a spirit of mutiny, which had been all day gathering, came 
to a head ; and a party was organized to oppose the extension of our 
trip two hundred .miles further, -to Lac-qui-Parle. After discussing the 
subject, a vote was taken, however, and a very large majority were in 
favor of proceeding. We were then near the mouth of the Cotton Wood 
River — in a region becoming more beautiful every mile we should pro- 
gress, and we were approaching a point where the river widened into a 
sort of lake, affording very easy navigation for at least eighty miles high- 
er, and we had reached within fifteen miles of Joseph La Frambois' 
house, where we wished to leave him and his family, and especially as 
he promised to make us a present when there, of a fresh slaughtered 
iiteer. 



107 



AH were anxious to see the remainder of this glorious country, of 
which Nicollett says : 

44 The whole country embraced by the Lower St. Peters and tho Un- 
dine region (or valley of the P>lue Earth or Mankato river) exceeds any 
land of the Mississippi above the Wisconsin river, as well in the quanti- 
ty and quality of its timber, as the fertility of its soil." 

But then the excessive heat, the want of dry fuel, the want of ice, the 
prevalence of musquitoes, the chance of sickness amongst women and 
children, the great distance from St. Paul, nearly three hundred miles, 
and the possibility to say the least, of some accident to the boat by which 
we might all be left in a far off wilderness, were urged as reasons for re- 
turning. The third night brought no rest. Sun an hour high, the next 
morning, the Yankee was still moored and but just getting up her steam. 
The crew of the boat were weary and disheartened, and there was a de- 
gree of reluctance manifested, which made it evident that our further 
progress would be very slow. The great expense of the trip, although 
not urged, doubtless had also its influence ; and at about seven o'clock 
in the morning, it was determined to head the Yankee down stream. — 
We accordingly nailed a board upon a tree, stating the date of the boat's 
arrival, her name, etc., and the name of the captain and some of the pas- 
sengers, and turned back. 

Homeward Bound. — Now leaps the Yankee down the swift, crooked 
river. A refreshing breeze springs up; the band discourses enlivening 
music ; the women are again in high feather and the men also, for there 
seems to be something of the excitement of danger mingled with joy at 
our returning, as the boat sweeps the short curves and now steers 
through a grove of willows, across an obtruding point, or is swept from 
bow to stern by the obtruding branches of a tree, or plunges into the 
darkening shadows of a forest. Now the boait seems rushing with su- 
icidal desperation upon a bristling snag in the shortest bend of a curve: 
a back stroke takes her stern back against the willows on the shore, 
where she lies until the current swings her bow into the right direction to 
run clear of the snags, when she again strikes down stream as if her 
life depended upon her speed. All safe. Anxiety of passengers is re- 
laxed ; but not so of the captain and the pilot. The captain always at 
his post on the hurricane deck through the whole trip up and down, 
stood watchful as a spider. In his memory and the pilot's was a chart 
of every bend, every snag, every change in the river. !t is not too much 
to say that in the exercise of all the memory, and all the judgment of the 
ibrce and bearing of currents, and all the prompt coolness requisite in 
the management of the boat, constantly, but especially in repeated criti- 
cal emergencies, no captain but a Harris, seconded by the prompt ac- 
tion of such a pilot and such engineers as he had on his boat, would 
.stand even a reasonable chance of conducting such a boat 300 miles 
down such a river for the first time without damage. Mr. Armstrong, 
the pilot, was assisted at the wheel by Mr. Brissette. We would do full 
justice to Mr. Girdon, clerk, who, by his constant and careful attention 
to the wants and convenience of the passengers, so well compensated 
for the absence of the captain from the cabin. Our pleasure was much 
onhanced by the stirring music of Messrs. Foster, Morgan, and Kirk, of 
the 6th Regiment band, aided by Mr. Eldridge with his violin, who also 
called the changes in cotillions. 

Cannel Coal. — At noon on the fourth day, we reached the mouth of 



108 



the Blue Earth river, up which the Yankee ran for a few rods, and nail- 
ed up a shingle. Much did we desire to wander six miles up that 
stream to the ruins of the trading post — a spot made historic bv the ad- 
ventures ot LaSeurin 10*98; but lime forbade. We contented ourselves 
With wandering for an hour along the pebbly beach in search of curiosi- 
ties. We saw a very perfect specimen of petrified wood, and some cor- 
nelians and agates, and a variety of odd shells ; but what interested us 
more was the discovery on the shore of several small specimens of what 
appeared to be mineral coal, precisely resembling the kind called cannel 
coal. Capt. Harris has one of tlm specimens; the Rev. Mr. Neill has 
a small specimen of it, which will be examined by a chemical test. A 
Frenchman living there, said tln re was a large, solid body of it in the 
bank of the river, a few miles up the Blue Earth. 

Again we are on our rapid way down stream. Fifteen miles below 
the blue Earth, we came suddenly upon Turtle Bend, the high- water 
mark of the Wayne. Here the captain used the precaution to warp the 
boat down stern foremost below the snags, by the use of anchors and ca- 
bles. We took down the board which the Wavne challenged us to bring 
back to St. Paul, and put another in its place, and sped onward. 

Ai the place where we took rails for fuel on our way up. we landed 
and look on board all that remained ; and speeding onward, soon 
rounded to for the night at Traverse des Sioux. Having been destitute 
of ice for several hours, we hastened to the mission house of the Rev. 
Mr. Hopkins, where we found plenty of cool well water, Mr. Neill and 
others had a pleasant, interview with the families of the missionaries, re- 
maining with them over night, while, in the cabin of the Yankee, all who 
wished joined in the joyous cotillion. 

The Fifth Day. — Bright and early on Friday morning, with a sup- 
ply of cold water and new milk on board, having distributed presents 
amongst the Indians on shore, the Yankee was again on her way. plun- 
ging rapidly along. We passed an hour or so at the village of Little Six, 
where we found very sturdy beggars, and were annoyed with demands 
upon us for the satisfaction of various promises which had been made 
by passengers on the Anthony W ayne. Little Six and a hundred more 
came on board, when his majesty made a long speech to Mr. Wells, the 
only person present who could understand him. He said ** he demand- 
ed presents for wharfage— that they must be paid for having their corn- 
fields trampled down by the whites, although it was true their com was 
not much, being damaged by the freshet— that it had been said about 
St. Paul, that his people believed that the freshet was a judgment sent 
upon them by the Great Spirit en account of steamboats coming up that 
river; but his people in fact believed no such thing, but were glad to see 
steamboats, especially if they brought suitable presents." Having dis- 
tributed two bolts of calico and other presents, amongst the Indians, we 
were off again, and at sunset reached Fort Spelling, where a shade of 
gloom wasjbrbwri over the company by news of the death of Mrs. Coop- 
er, wife of J udge Cooper, of our company, and of the death also of Mrs. 
Ethridge, mother of another one of our company. Touching at Men- 
dota, we again proceeded homeward ; but before rounding to amidst the 
enthusiastic shouts of welcome, such as St. Paul knows how to greet her 
friends with, at the Lower Landing, the following resolution was unani- 
mously adopted and agreed to be signed as a card by the whole company.* 



109 

The undersigned, fellow passengers on board the steamboat Yankee, 
on the excursion just made by that boat lor a distance of nearly 300 
miles U|j the Minnesota river, and back again, without the slighted ac- 
cident, while the boat encountered the constant hazard of navigating 
waters never before traversed by a steamboat, express their unqualified 
approbation of the skill, patience, and untiring attention of the captain, 
officers, and men of the boat, to their comfort and safety. 

Henrv F. Landers, Mrs. Ilorr, W in. G. Uendrickson, L. A.Babcock 
and lady, Chas. S. Todd, Geo. Douglass and lady. Miss M. A. Scofield, 
J. VV. Bass and lady, James M. Goodhue, Miss C. C. Kneeland. Alexi* 
Bailly and sons, Miss Lucy Ann Baillv, P. K. Johnson and ladv, A. 
Goodrich, Mrs. E. C. Parker, M. A. Mitchell, B. VV. Brunson," Ed. 
Douglass, Erwin Y. Shelley, Wm. Bathgate, John Trower, M. Sherman 
and lady, David Day, Alexander Farribault, Daniel Farribault Peter 
Hopkins, Jesse Lowe, George Farquhar, Ed Delano, C. P. V. Lull, N. 
McLean, Edward D. Neill, Charles Cavileer, John Seesholt, Samuel If. 
Sergent and lady, Mrs. Burton, Joseph Mosher and lady, Joseph Gib- 
bons, David Olmsted, James Wells, Miss C. Cralte, Henry Jackson, 
Samuel H. Dent, II. M. Rice and lady, Miss Ellen Rice, VV. G. LeDuc, 
Miss E. Miller, Mrs. E.Young, Misses Arabella, Mary, and Martha Mc- 
Lean, Miss L. Rowe, Miss Julia Barnum, Mr. Ethridge and lady, Mr. 
Knox. 

Thus ended this eventful voyage of exploration so replete with nov- 
elty and stirring incident, that it will be remembered while life lasts ; 
and thus, by a series of efforts, has been demonstrated the enviable 
commercial position of our young town. 

Not twenty years ago, near the south end of Lake Michigan, a few 
cabins clustered spon the low sandy shore of that lake. Well do we re- 
member the time. Upon one side was stretched the restless lake, and 
elsewhere, in every direction, a vast expanse of marshy prairie The 
picturesque scenery of Fox river, the enchanting valleys of the O'Plaifc 
and the Dupage rivers, and the bewitching loveliness of the Rock river 
valley, had yet yielded no allegiance to the husbandman. Chicago ac- 
tually suffered for want of the necessaries of life. Transient s'eamboats 
arrived there with cargoes of restless Yankees. Hundreds of those who 
arrived glanced at the forlorn hopes of a town which had no tr de, in a 
country which produced nothing as yet but swarms of musquitors; took 
in a bird's-eye view of the marsh, or rode out perhaps as far as Berry's 
Point or Flagg Greek, and then taking the first boat, bade forever fare- 
well to the Eelewoy in general and to Jhioago in particular." Pre- 
cisely such is the history of the growth of St. Paul. W ith at least equal 
commercial advantages here, hundreds of those who arrived expected in 
find Minnesota a cultivated Eden, without a barren spot and bt. Paul & 
Milwaukee or Chicago, in which, however, corner lots could be had on 
time at a merely nominal price, and quarter sections adjoining the town, 
be entered at $1 25 per acre. Such people have been disappo : nted. 
They have been blown away like chaff before the wind. They are gone, 
carryiiig with them, doubtless, unfavorable reports of a country about 
which they know nothing; but they nave left behind them, in Minnesota, 
hundreds of substantial, energetic men who have the foresight and judg- 
ment to comprehend the advantages of our town, and who will .stand 
manfully up and aid in developing the resources of Minnesota. Tbet 
are the men to build up a city and to profit ultimately in its growth. 



110 

Ten years hence, when St. Paul is numbered, as it will be, with the 
great cities of the Mississippi, their enterprise and their sacrifices will be 
gratefully remembered. 



FORT SNELLING.. 

At this post (1851) the following officers are stationed : 
T. Uendrickson, Brvt. Capt. com'dg. 
A. N. McLaren, Surgeon. 

R. W. Kirkham, Brvt. Capt. and Reg. Qr. Master. 

J. W. T. Gardner, 1st Lieut. 

T. B. Buckner, 2d Lieut. 

T. P. Costor, 2d Lieut. 

W. P. Carlin, Brvt. 2d Lieut. 

Fzekiel G. Gear, Chaplain. 

Franklin Steele, Sutler. 

Total of non-commissioned Officers, musicians, and privates, about 200. 

The 6th Infantry Band is stationed here, which is composed of about 
twenty musicians, who are very superior performers. The Band Master 
is Sergt. R. T. Jackson. Sergeant Thomas, a portrait and landscape 
painter of much merit, is also stationed here. 

The military reservation surrounding and for the accommodation of 
the post, comprehends a tract of country about twelve miles square. It 
is said that a treaty was made in the year 1805 with the Sioux Indiana 
for this reservation ; but it would appear by the following letter that no 
such treaty was ever sanctioned : 

Department of State, Sept. 1st, 1835. 

Sir : — -The archives of this Department have been examined* bu! no 
evidence has been found that the treaty made with the Sioux Indians, in 
3 805, was sanctioned by the President and officially declared to be hi 
force. 

I am, verv respectfully, 

Your obt. serv't, ASBURY DICKENS. 

Hon, Lewis Cass, Secretary of War. 

If any doubt was entertained in regard to the reservation, it was re- 
moved by the treaty with the Sioux, G'hippewas, &c, at Prairie du Chien 
©nthe 19th August, 1825. 

Many years ago, the Government erected a mil! on this military reser- 
vation, nearly opposite the village of St. Anthony, on the Indian sideW 
the river, at the Fall's of St. Anthony. This mill was built for the accom- 
modation of Fort Swelling, and the last few years has been in ihe occu- 
pancy of the Hon. Robert Smith, of Illinois, and others, with an agree- 
ment with the Secretary of War, that for such privilege of occupancy and 
use, the occupant should do the necessary grinding for the foit free and 
without reward. 

Fort Ripley, (formerly Post Gaines.)— Capt. J. B. S, Todd, Glh 
Infantry, commanding post. 

Capt. N. J. T. Dana, Asst. Qr. Master. 

Lieut. Corby, 6th Infantry. 

J. F. Head, Assr, Surgeon U. S. Army. 



Ill 

A question of considerable importance is being- mooted in the Territc- 
rial Legislature now in session, whether persons residing upon a milita- 
ry reservation in the Indian country, and also upon Indian lands, not 
included in such reservation, are entitled, under the laws of the United 
States, to send representatives to the Territorial Legislature. The de- 
termination of this question may have some bearing upon the legality of 
rhe election last fall of the Delegate to Congress from this Territory. It 
is, however, a question involving important rights and privileges, and thy 
reader is referred to the Legislative proceedings for the reports, speeches, 
«fc.c, in regard to the matter. 



LIST OF POST OFFICES AND POST MASTERS IN MINNE- 
SOTA. 

Henry Jackson was the first Post Master at St. Paul, succeeded by 
J. W. Bass, who now holds the office; Ard Godfrey, P. M. at St. 
Anthony; Jonathan McKusick, Stillwater; F. Steele, Fort Snelling ; 
David Oakes, Fort Ripley; L. Hurtzell, Point Douglass ; D.Olmsted, 
Long Prairie; J. N. Kittson, Pembinai Alexis Bailley, Wabashaw; J. 
Russell, Sauk Rapids; O. Walker, Marine Mills; J. VV. Furber, Cot- 
tage Grove; J. A. Ford, Red R'ock ; J. W. Hancock, Red Wing; C. 
Reed, Reed's Landing. 

MAIL FROM THE SELKIRK SETTLEMENT OF THE RED RIVER OF THE NORTH. 

James McGuy and' Adam Klyn, Red River half-breeds, arrived at St. 
Paul on Wednesday last, 5th of February, 1851, with a dog train; 
bringing the mail from the Selkirk Settlement, from which place they 
started on the 12th of January, making the trip, a distance of six hun- 
dred miles, in twenty four days. Six days of that time they were una- 
ble to travel, in consequence of heavy snow storms. At one time they 
were overtaken on a prairie, about forty miles this side of Pembina, by 
a very severe snow storm, and for protection took shelter under a bank 
of snow, where they remained without food for thirty hours. They trav- 
eled the whole distance from Selkirk to Swan river, about a hundred 
miles north of this place, on snow shoe3, the dog train carrying their pro- 
visions and the mail. 

They report the health of the Red river settlements as good. The 
crops of the last season were abundant, and the people are in a flourish- 
ing condition. They are turning their attention more than formerly to 
farming, and the comforts and conveniences of improved civilization. 
An extensive grist mill, driven by water, has lately been erected on Stur- 
geon creek, near Fort Garry. A great many new farms in that vicinity 
oave been lately opened. 

They raise extensively, wheat, barley, oats, corn, potatoes, turnips 
and all kinds of garden vegetables, sheep, and hogs. They manufac- 
ture their wool, which is said to be cf excellent quality, into blankets, 
cloths, stockings, &c. The inhabitants of that distant region are paying 
great attention to the cause of education. Lord Bishop, from England, 
is devoting his time, talents, and money to the education of the people- 
<on the British side of the lino. 



112 



The trade of the Red river settlements 13 an object of great impor- 
tance to this place, and, with trifling aid from Government, may be ea- 
sily secured. The first step will he to establish a monthly mail between 
Pembina and St. Pairf. This ought to be secured at once. The mail* 
now sent are private, and come but once or twice a year. T\\q peoph- 
of Red River have about them all the elements of improved civilization, 
and naturally seek this direction in their intercourse with the commer- 
cial world. 

The following are post routes in Minnesota Territory : 
From Mendota at 6 a. m. once a month, kst day ; 
By Little Rapids, Traverse des Sioux and Little Rock; 
To Lac qui Parle by 6 p.m. of the l.Stli day of said month-, 350 miles; 
And back between 6 r. m. of the 16th and Q p.m. of the 30th day of 
«aid monfh ; 

From Point Douglass at 6 a.m. once a week, Friday; 

By Cottage Grove and Red Pock; 

To St. Paul by G p. m., 40 miles ; 

And back between 6 a. m. and 6 p. m. next da^ ; 

From Point Douglass at 6 a. m. once a week, Monday ; 

By Stillwater, Marine Mills Falls of St. Croix and Pokegarna lake ,- 

To the Falls of St. Louis river, of Lake Superior, Ly 6 r. m. nextSun- 
4&y, 175 miles ; 

And back between 6 a. m. Monday and 6 p. m. next Sunday ; 

From St. Paul at 6 a. m. once in two weeks, Monday ; 

By Falls of St. Anthony, Sauk Rapids, and mouth- of Swan- river ; 

To Fort Gaines by 6 p. m. ne:it Sunday. 1:30 miles - r 

And back between 6 a.m. Monday and 6 p. m. next Sunday ; 

From Swan river at 6 a. m. once a month, on th-e 1st day of each 
month ; 

By Long Prairie ; 

To Pembina by 6 p. m. of the 30th day of said month, 630 miles ; 
And back between 6 a.m. of the first day of each month, and 6 p. x_ 
<if the 30th day of the same month ; 

From VV'abasliaw at 6 a m. once a week, Monday ; 

By VVahcootak's Village, Olive Grove, and Mendota; 

To Fort Snelling by 6 p. m. nexi Wednesday. 96 miles ; 

And back between 6 a. m. Thursday and 6 p. m. next Saturday. 



ROADS. 

Liberal appropriations have been made by the Govern r.*ent fo* 
roads in the Territory, and the money is to be expended under coo- 
sract. These wishing to make bids under the law may fi»d the infor- 
mation contained in the following letter 1" 

Bureau of Topographical Engineers, 
Washington, September 7lh, 1850. 
Sm : Your letter of the 5th of August has been duly received and re- 
ferred through the proper channels to this office. 

Before the War Department can make contracts for the several roadi 



113 

fc> which you have referred, it will have to obtain accurate knowledge of 
the several routes named to determine the extent of grubbing, felling 
timber, ditching, bridges and their kinds, which will be required. Then 
it will hive to advertise for proposals, and will give the contracts to the 
proposer whose bid shall be accepted. 

In the advertisement the qu mtity and kind of work will be specif^cally 
desenbed. so that bidders will be able to know clearly what they may 
offer to do. 

A general law (3d March, 1809) makes it necessary that in all cases 
of contracts the work should be regularly advertised, and bids be there- 
by invited, and it is usually a custom lo allow thirty days from the date 
ot 'the advertisement as a period after which proposals are not received, 
it is also the custom to advertise in the vicinity of the work. 

Respectfully, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

j. j. a Bert, 

CoL Corps R. 



FACTS FOE FARMERS. 

Mr. Miohael Barrett started from Stillwater, a short time ago, for his 
home near Rock island, Illinois, with the intention of returning to Min- 
nesota, in March next, with a drove of cattle, of not less than two hun- 
dred head. He will oome by the way of Judge Knowlton's road from 
Prairie du Chien to Willowriver. lie informed us not lo'^g since that 
there Is no difficulty in driving cattle by that road. He made two trips 
last s a ion, bringing fifty head of cattle one trip, and one hundred the 
other, ile says it is a profitable business. 

We (earn from Mr. Bartlett the following facts : Cattle winter or the 
rushes in this country, and do much better than on any other, for 
by spring they become quito fat, without any other food or atten- 
tion. 

He also says this is a better wheat country than the vicinity of Rock 
Island, Illinois. The reason he assigns is, that the ground being cover- 
ed in winter with snow, does not freeze so deep here as there. The 
wheat lure, he thinks, if properly sown, will not freeze out. 

In the latter part of last April, he left Minnesota lor his home, near 
Rock Island. When' he left here there was no sign of vegetation, and 
when he reached home, about the 5th of May, his neighbors had gene- 
rally finished corn planting. He started back here in. the latter part cf 
June. Corn at the same place was about hip high. He arrived here m 
seven davs, when Minnesota corn was in tassel. This fact shows the 
rapidity of vegetable growth in this Territory. Mr. Bartlett is an exten- 
sive practical farmer in Illinois, and it is his opinion, that Minnesota pos- 
sesses agricultural advantages not surpassed by any portion of the 
West. 

Another gentleman says he came here in the fall of 1849, and on his 
way up there was frost at Galena. Tfeere was no frost here until six 
weeks after. 

us 8 



114 



LANDING POINTS FOR STEAMBOATS, FROM GALENA TO 

ST. PAUL. 

Galena, Dubuque, Peru, (Iowa) Cassvilla, Guttenberg, Clayton City, 
Wyoming, Wisconsin River, McGregor's Landing. Fort Crawford, 
Prairie du Chien. Lansing. Winnishick, Warner's Landing. Piairie La- 
cross, Mouth of Black River, Reed's Landing, Wabashaw. Lake Pepin, 
Red Wing, Moutli of Lake St. Croix, Red Rock, Little Crow Village, 
St. Paul, Mendota, St. Peter s. 

FROM MOUTH OF LAKE ST. CBOIX TO FALLS OF 3T. CBOIX. 

Willow River, Stillwater, Areola Mills, Marine Mills, Osceola Mills,.. 
Fails of St. Crdix. 



THE CENSUS— IMPORTANT STATISTICS OF THE UNITED' 
STATES— THE POPULATION OF THE GREAT REPUBLIC. 

The official and reported returns of the census of 1850, from the sev- 
eral States and Territories, have so far come in, that we are enabled to 
make the following proximate statement of the population of the different 
States and Territories of the Union, compared with the census of 1840: 

New England States, 

3. Maine, 
2. N. Hampshire, 
& Vermont. - 

4. Massachusetts, 

5. Rhode island, 

6. Connecticut, 



Total New England, 

Other States, 

7. New York, 

8. New Jersey, 

9. Pennsylvania, <• 

10. Delaware, - 

11. Maryland, 

12. Virginia, - 

13. Noith Carolina, 

14. South Carolina, 

15. Georgia, 
10. Florida, 

17. Alabama, '< - 

18. Mississippi, 

19. Louisiana, 

20. Arkansas, 







1850. 


1840. 






683 026 


500,438 






- 317 997 


284,036. 






314 332 


.291,218 






985 000 


720,030 






147.503 


105.587 






371,982 


301,85$ 






2,719,840 


2,234,821 




■ #- 


4 3 099 249 


2.428 921 






480 381 


373.30$ 






~ 2 250GC0 


1,724,033 






90 407 


78.085 






- 575 150 


470019 






1.428 863- 


1.249.784 






670 5C9 


753 4!9 






639,093 


594 398 






950.CCQ 


691 392 






85,000 


. r 4 477 






- 800,000 


580 756 






580 0(0 


375 654 






525 CCO 


352 411 






198,786 


97,584 



115 



Oth- r States. 



21. Texas, • 


175,000 




22. Tennessee, 


1,050 00& 


829,210 


£3. Kentucky, 


987 950 


779,828 


; 24. Ohio. 


2 150,000 


1,419,487 


25. Indiana, • - * 


1 OVl ftCifl 
l,ZOO,\JV\s 


uoo.ubb 


26. Illinois, - 


850 000 


486.183 


27. Missouri, ■ • * 


• V) O 1 O** 4 


'JO') T( .6) 

olio, /us 


28. Michigan, 


397.576 


212,267 


29. Wisconsin, • 


305.121 


30.945 


30. Iowa, 


175.000 


43,112 


31. California, . • «. 


165,000 




Total 31 States, 


23,479,45a 


17,029,630 


Territories, fyc. 






District of Columbia* 


54,000 


33,645 


Minnesota, - 


6,139! 


New. 


Oregon, - 


10,000 


New. 


Utah. 


2J.00O 


New. 


New Mexico, - 


75000 




Total, States and Territories, 


23.644.605 


18,063,375 



Texas, California, Utah and New Mexico, having been annexed to 
the United Stales since 1840. no estimate is made of their population in 
that year. The population of Minnesota and Oregon ia 1840, is of course 
unknown. 

With regard to the population of the thirty-one States, on which rep- 
resentation to the lower house of Congress is based, we believe it will 
stand nearly as follows: — 

Whites," 19 879,468 

Free Colored, - 500.000 
Slaves, - 3.100,000 



Total, 23,479,468 

To ascertain the representation or federal population, according to the 
constitution, it will be remembered that three-filths only of the slaves are 
to be calculated. The representative number of the slaves, therefore, will 
be 1,86 ) 000. to which add the whites and free colored, and we have a 
total of 22,230,468 as the representative population of the thirty-ono 
States According to the act of Congress passed at the last session, the 
federal population is to be divided by 233— the present number of mem- 
bers of tho House of Representatives — for the purpose of fixing the ratio 
of representation for the next ten years. This ratio, if our estimate of 
the total population is nearly correct, will be about, 95 447; and those 
States having the largest fractions, when the population is correctly as- 
certained, will bo entitled to the odd members required to make the 
whole number of Representatives — 233 — as at present. 

By the census of 1840, tho ratio of representation was fixed at 70.680, 
and an additional member to each State having a fraction greater than 
one-half of the ratio. 



116 



We think that the representation 
ly as follows: 





RATIO. 




New. 


Old. 


Maine, 


6 


7 


New Hampshire, 


3 


4 


Vermont, 


3 


4 


Massachusetts, 


10 


10 


Rhode island, 


o 


2 


Connecticut, 


4 


4 


New York, 


33 


34 


New Jersey, 


5 


5 


Pennsylvania, 


24 


24 


Delaware, 


1 


1 


Maryland, 


5 


6 


Virginia, 


13 


15 


North Carolina, 


8 


9 


South Carolina, 


5 


7 


Georgia, 


C 


8 


Floruit, 


1 


1 



Total, 



the several States will stand near- 



RATIO. 





New. 


Old. 


Alabama, 


7 


7 


Mississippi, 


4 


4 


Louisiana, 


4 


4 


Texas, 


Q 





Arkansas, 


2 


1 


Tennessee, 


1 1 




Kentucky, 


9 


10 


Ohio, 


23 


21 


Indiana, 


13 


10 


Illinois, 


9 


£ 


Missouri, 


7 


6 


Michigan, 


4 


3 


Wisconsin, 


3 


3 


Iowa, 


2 


2 


California, 


2 


a 




233 


233 



A STEAMBOAT TO RUN ON THE SAINT PETERS RIVER. 

Messrs. Was son & Barnes, of Sturgis Prairie, Michigan, will establish 
at this place, next spring, an Iron Foundry, Engine and Machine Shop. 
They will also have a boat for the navigation of the St. Peter's. In a 
letter to the Pioneer, under date of the 3d ult., they say: 

"We shall have about 50 tons ©{'freight removed to St. Paul in the 
spring, and having the engine and necessary machinery for a boat oa 
hand; we thought it best, to build a boat this winter, near by us on ihe 
St. Joseph river, which is navigable from us to its mouth on Lake Mich- 
igan, for small steamboats. W e propose running down this river, across 
Lake Michigan, through the Illinois river and from thence to St. Paul. 
This we expect to accomplish, if nothing prevents, by the middle of May 
next. We shall bring along with us two engines and boilers for our 
Foundry and Jtngine shop, also all the workmen for conducting it, and 
to erect a suitable building for the seme. The Foundry, we probably 
shall build of stone; 150 feet long, 50 feet wide and 22 teet high. We 
shall come prepared to make all kinds of Engines and Machinery for 
steamboats, mills, shops, &c. Our steamboat,— her cabins will not hi> 
finished until alter we arrive at St. Paul, where we shall fit her up." 



Perhaps the arrival of the first steamboat at the St. Peter's, was as im- 
portant an epoch as any event since the discovery of that river by Jonathan 
Carver, or the wonderful advent of Hennepin, sixty years earlier at the 
Falls of St. Anthony. li is difficult lor us to imagine, how civilization 
could have breasted the/strong current of the Mississippi, in birch cauoe*; 



117 



and it is very certain, that without the aid of steam, there would have 
been here no Territorial Government of Minnesota.no St. Paul, no Pio- 
neer and but few, if any. of your intelligent readers, to take an interest 
in the history of those early times in Minnesota. The first steamboat 
that ever pbwed these waters, arrived in 1823 or 1824 (I am uncertain 
which year) at Mr. Sibley's trading post, mouth of the St. Peters. She 
was owned by Mr. D. G. Bates ot Galena. It was a day, long to be re- 
membered. The Dakotas were then in full possession of both sides of the 
river. The Indians say they had dreamed the night before, of seeing 
some monster of the deep, which frightened them very much. As the 
boat approached the mouth of the river, they stood, in multitudes upon 
the shore, men, squaws and papooses, gaping with astonishment to see 
the huge monster advancing against the current. They really thought 
it was some enormous water-god, coughing and spouting water in every 
direction and pulHng out his hot breath. The peasants of Europe 
would not be worse frightened, if Mt. Etna should get upon legs, and 
travel across the continent, belching forth fire and lava. The women 
and children fled for the woods, their hair streaming in the wind, while 
some of the warriors, retreating to a more respectful distance, stood their 
ground until the boat passed and landed. The boat being one of those 
awful high pressure boats, which blow off steam with a noise like unbot- 
tling an earthquake, when she "blew out" shook with terrer the knees of 
the stoutest braves; and in a twinkling, every red skin had vanished in 
the woods, screaming and shouting with all their might. 



SCHOOLS. 

The following procceedings, exhibit the first steps taken under the 
Territorial government toward establishing schools in conformity with a 
law on that subject, passed by the first Legislative Assembly of Minne- 
sota. 

SCHOOL MEETING. 

An adjourned meeting of the citizens of St. Paul, was held at the 
school house in said town, on Saturday evening, December 1st., 1850, to 
lake steps relative to the establishment of Public Schools. 

John A. Wakefield, Esq., in the chair. 

On motion of Mr. A. li. French, B. W. Lott was appointed Secre- 
tary. 

On motion, the Committee appointed at a previous meeting, to take into 
consideration the best means to supply the children of the town with 
school rooms for the winter, and to ascertain the provisions of law for 
the support of schools, reported by their chairman Bon. C. K. Smith, as 
follows : 

REPORT. 

The undersigned Committee, appointed at a meeting held at 
the School House in Saint Paul, on the evening of the 27th instant, 
to take into consideration the best means to 6up t dy the children of 



118 

the town with school rooms for the winter, and to ascertain the provisions 
of law for the support of schools, have considered thesubjtct, and find, 
by the act entitled "An act to establish and maintain Common Scho< Is," 
passed by our Territorial Legislature, that "there shall be elected annu- 
ally, at the general election, three persons in each School Distrtet, to be 
called School Trustees." This law is the law of the Territory, and its 
operation and power commenced with this day. The general election 
of this year is passed, and it would seem as if no organization of School 
Districts could take place under the law, and we would be without, until 
after the general election of next year. 

We are helped out of this difficulty, however, by the aid of the 11th 
section of Wisconsin Statutes, at page 138, bound vol.. which does not 
conflict with the Territorial law on the subject, and is therefore in force 
in this Territory. 

We remark that it is provided in the Territorial law, that an annual tax 
of one fourth of one per cent., on the advalorum amount of the assessment 
shall be raised for school purposes: fifteen per cent, of all monies aris- 
ing from licenses granted for the sale of spirituous liquors, and fifteen 
per cent of fines collected for criminal offences. And that by the 6th and 
10th sections of the Territorial Act, we may organize the town into one 
or more School Dis'ricts, elect Trustees, &c. Before this can be done, 
however, by the provisions of the 6th section of the Territorial law, the 
County Commissioners should, as they are authorized to do. divide the 
same into School Districts. After this shall have been done, we may. by 
the 20th section, vote a tax of six hundred dollars, to purchase, build, 
hire, repair and furnish a school house. 

We conclude, therefore, that all the seeming difficulties of the law may 
be reconciled, and that an efficient and energetic organization may take 
place under those sections, and the 11th section of the Wisconsin statutes 
entitled "An act to establish common schools," we therefore, recc mm end 
that two persons be appointed by this meeting to call on the county com- 
missioners and request them to divide the town into a suitable number of 
school districts, after which an organization of the districts shall be brought 
about agreeably to the requirements of law, and we in like manner recom- 
mendthat a committee of two be appointed to call on John R. Irvine, and 
ascertain the amount due for the erection of the school building now occu- 
pied by this meeting, and whether he is willing to transfer the title to the lot 
upon which the building stands to the school trustees, for the us^ of the 
districts: Provided, the amount due shall be paid or assumed to be paid 
in a reasonable time by them. 

We also recommend that a committee of two be appointed to receive 
a deed to the school trustees of the district for a lot lrom Mr. Randall 
which he proposes to donate for school purposes and that said committee 
take such measures toward the erection o! a school building on said lot as 
trie exigency of the case seems to require. 

We would recommend as a winter arrangement demanded by the best 
interests of the town,, that three schools be opened without delay: one in. 
thelower end of the town in a building, which it is in contemplation to 
erect immediately on the lot to be donated by Mr. Randall: another in the 
basement of the Methodist Church, or in Mr. Neill's Lecture Room, both 
of which have been kindly tendered free of expense: And lastly, thte 
school now kept in this room be continued. 

We take pleasure in recommending as teachers of the several schools 



119 

in contemplation, the Misses Bishop and Scofield, and the Rev. Elder 
Hobart, as worthy, capable, and ev^vy way qualified to be employed, and 
Anally suggest the following resolution: 

Res. lived, That the six gentlemen, who may constitute the committee 
hereinbefore recommended, together with B. YV. Brunson, Esq., be a 
school committee to supervise tiie .schools and bring about the measures 
recommended in the foregoing report, and that they continue to act witn 
all the power and authority of school trustees, until the town shall be di- 
vided into school districts by the commissioners, and such districts be 
fully organized under the law, and trustees elected, who shall sanction 
all said committee may do, and assume any responsibility, debts, or* 
contracts, which hive been assumed by said committee on behalf of tho 
schools hereinbefore mentioned. 

' Respectfully submitted, 

C. K. SMITH, Chairman. 

St. Paul, Dec. I, 1849. 

On motion, the report was accepted and the committee discharged. 

On motion, Messrs. W in. H. Forbes and John Snow, were appointed a 
committee to call on the county commissioners, &c, as per first recom- 
mendation of the above report. 

On motion, Edmund Rice, Esq., and Rev. E. D. Neil, were appointed 
a committee to call on John R. Irvine, &c, as per second recommenda- 
tion of said report. 

On motion, Rev. B. F. Hoyt and J. Parsons were appointed a com- 
mittee to receive a deed from VVm. H. Randall, sen., &c, as per third 
recommendation of said report. 

On -'motion, it was ordered that the proceedings of this meeting be 
published in the Minnesota Pioneer and Chronicle and Register. a 

On inotion, the meeting adjourned sine die. 

JOHN A. WAKEFIELD, Chairman. 

B. W. Lott, Secretary. 

SCHOOL COMMITTEE MEETING. 

At a meeting of the provisional committee on schools, at the office of 
the Secretary ot the Territory, in St. Paul, on the evening of the 4th of 
Dec, 1849. there were present Rev. Mr. Hoyt. Rev. Mr. Pasons, Rev. 
Mr. Neili. Hon. VVm. 11. Forbes, and Mr. E. Rice. 

Hon*. Win. H. Forbes was appointed to the chair, and E. Rice, was 
appointed Secretary. 

Rev. Mr. Xeill, from the committee appointed to ascertain what 
amount of indebtedness existed for building the school horse occupied 
by Miss Biship and Miss Scofield, and whether if the same should be 
paid, a title lotheland on which the house is erected, can be procured, 
reported verbilly, that he had conferred with Mr. Irvine, the owner of 
the land, who informed him that there remained unpaid to Mr. Pomroy 
about {$8 3 for building the House, and that Mr. Irvine would execute a 
deed of the land to the proper persons when that indebtedness has been 
paid. Whereupon said committee was discharged. 

Rev. Mr. Parsons moved that said debt be assumed, and that the Secre- 
tary draft a subscription paper, and that each member of the provisional 
committee take active measures in circulating the same, to tlie end thai 



120 



said indebtedness may be discharged by subscriptions; which motion 
prevailed. 

Kev. Mr. Neill moved that three schools be established in St. Paul 
the present winter, as follows, viz: one at the school house in the upper end 
of town, one at the school house about to be erected at the lower end of 
town, and another at the brick church; which motion was agreed to. 

Rev. Mr. Parsons moved that the committee employ upon ju.st and 
equitable terms, the Rev. Mr. Hobart to teach at the brick churth, and 
Miss Bishop to teach at the school house at the upper end of town, and 
Miss Scofield to teach at the house to be erected at the lower part of 
town; and the motion was adopted. 

Rev. Mr. Neill moved that the Rev. Mr. Hoyt confer with Rev. Mr. 
Hobart, and Rev. Mr. Parsons confer with Miss Bishop and Miss Sco- 
field, on the subject of teaching schools agreeably to the last preceeding 
motion; and the motion was adopted. 

And on further motion the committee adjourned to meet at 7 o'clock 
next Saturday evening at the same place. 

VVM. H. FORBES, Chairman. 

Edmund Rice, Sec. 



Saturday Evening. Dec. 7, TC49. 
Committee met pursuant to adjournment. Present, the Chairman and 
Secretary, Rev. Messrs. Hoyt and Parsons. B. W. Brunson and J. Snow, 

Esq's. 

Proceedings of the last meeting read and approved. A subscrip- 
tion paper agreeably to previous directions was presented by the Secre- 
tary. 

Rev. Mr. Hoyt reported that he had conferred with Mr. Hobart in 
regard to teaching school the present winter, who offered to teaeh at the 
rate of three dollars a scholar by the quarter; under general superinten- 
dence of the provisional committee. 

Rev. Mr. Parsons made a like report in regard to his conference with 
Miss Bishop and Miss Scofield. And Mr. Brunson moved that they be 
employed upon the terms reported, until such lime as a legal organiza- 
tion of one or more school districts, shall take place, but not to exceed 
three months; and the motion was agreed to. 

Rev. Mr. Hoyt moved that teaching five days shall be considered 
equivalent to a week, and sixty days to a quarter; and further, that the 
necessary fuel for the several schools be obtained by subscription, and 
when delivered that the young men of the place be requested to meet at 
a given time to cut the same lor use; and the motion was agreed to. 

On motion of the Secretary, Rev. Mr. Hoyt was appointed to request 
Mr. Hobart to commence his school on Monday, Dec. 10th; and Rev. 
Mr. Parsons was appointed to request Miss Bishop and Miss Scofield to 
commence their schools respectively on Monday, Dec. 24th; and the 
motion was adopted. 

Rev. Mr. Parsons moved that the proceedings of the committee be pub- 
lished in the Pioneer and Chroncle and Register; carried. 

Whereupon the committee adjourned, subject to meet bj a cal) of tha 
chairman. 

WM.. Hi FORBES, Chairman, 

Edmund Rice, See. 



121 



FIVE TEACHERS FOR PEMBIiJA. 

We are informed that Hon. W. Blade; Agent of the Board of National 
Popular Education, has made arrangements for sending five teaehers t»» 
Pembina, M. T. on the opening of navigation. We congratulute the 
Pembinees on their good fortune of the j.rospect of schools taught by 
(teachers every way so well qualified as those are, who are sent out by 
this Board of Education; and doubt not that alter the acquisition of these 
desirable "helps" to the society of Pembina, a Press will .>oon follow, 
and ideas will rapidly multiply, and be taught to shoot with mathemati- 
cal precision, and with ihe rapidity of lightning. Success to these female 
pioneer teachers in the good cause in which they are zealously en- 
gaged. 

It is a noble and distinguishing characteristic of the American citizen,, 
that prior to emigiation to a new district of country, he enquires notonlv 
lk Is the soil fertile and the climate healthy? but also are there means at 
hand for cultivating the mind and head of myself and "little ones." Ar 
Secretary, I appeared to be in the path of duty while obtaining other 
Jacts, to collect as far as practicable the educational and denominational 
statistics of the Territory — supposing that they would be interesting to 
the citizens, as well as to those who may contemplate making Aiinnesota 
their future residence. I discover that the children now (years 1849-50) 
in the process of education, are generally under the charge of female 
teachers. This is a happy circumstance and if carried out would prove 
economical as well as eminently ad\ antageous in o ner respects. A 
quiet, delicate and unobtrusive female, acting under the direction and 
advise of a board of School Commissioners, experience has shown to be 
the most effective instructor in the district school, hence in New York 
about 8 J00 of the Common School teachers are of this descr ption; in 
Massachusetts, more than one half, and of the 731, employed in the pub- 
lic schools of the city and county of Philadelphia, 551) or about five sixths 
are of the gentler sex. 

1 have been kindly furnished by D. A. J. Baker with the following facts 
in relation to schools in the Territory: 

For an account of the schools previous to the year 1850. Lam in- 
debted to the Rev. Mr. Williamson of Kaposia and Mr. Ely of this city. 
Those schools were connected with the Missions established at different 
periods and were attended mostly by the Indians and mixed races which 
then composed the greater part of the population. The first of which 
I can learn, was at Sandy Lake in 1832, and taught by Mr. F. Ayer, fol- 
lowed by Mr. E. F. Ely. During the winter of 1833/Rev. W. T. Bout- 
well, taught at Leach Lake, and the next year the Mission was opened 
which continued till 1838. In 1834, Mr. Ely commenced a school at 
Fond du Lac. which continued till the spring of 1839. From 183G to 
1846, there was a Mission school at Pokagoma. taught by Mr. 
Ayer, Mrs. Seymour, and Mr. Ely. In 1835 also, Miss Sarah 
Ponge commenced a school at Lac qui- Parle, and in December of that 
year, Rev. Mr. Williamson commenced teaching in the Dakota lan- 
guage. In 1836 Mr. S. W. Pond commenced teaching at Lake Harriet 
near Fort Snelling. 

In 1837, Rev. David Kings opened a school at Kaposia. but it was 
broken up, and in 1839, a boarding school was started there, of 
which Mr. Amos Jones was teacher. Mrs. Martha Boardman wa$ 



122 



afterwards associated with him. In the following year there was a school 
at Red Rock. About this time, Mrs. Persia Denton, taught at lied 
Wing, and in 1842, Mrs. L. C. Gaine taught at the mouth of the St. 
Croix. In the latter year a Mission school was opened at lied Lake by 
Rev. Mr. .\yers, which I understand yet continues under Rev. Mr, 
Waight and Dr. Lewis, also schools were established at Cass Lake, and 
Little Winnipeg, by Rjv. Messrs. Barnard and Spencer. Miss J. S. W il- 
liamson is teaching a Dakota and English school at Kaposia, which she 
commenced in 46 or 47. The attendance at these scools was. and is 
small, varying from five to 25, and many of them, who have attended, 
have never learned to speak the English Language. Yet, that much 
good has been, and is still being accomplished by thein, cannot be doubted. 

In 1847. Miss H. E. Bishop commenced the first select School in St. 
Paul, which she continued till the tall of 18-50, She may be considered 
as the Pioneer in teaching an English school of English speaking pupils, 
and much praise is due to her perseverance under many discouar..ge» 
merits. 

MissScofield followed in 1849 and taught in St. Paul, till the fall of 1 850. 
Both these teachers came. I believe, under the patronage of Gov. Slade. 
In 1848 M rat's 11 oxford, now the lady of II. L. Moss, E&q , commenced a 
select school at Stillwater; though 1 am told that previous to that, a Miss 
Greenleat had taught at intervals. Mr. L. B. Wait followed in the sum- 
mer of 1849. At Point Douglass J. M . Craig, opened a school, in Janu- 
ary 185J, he taught in a large building, and had about thirty scholars 
through the winter; since that, they have continued to have a private 
school, at ill, it place. At St. Anthony a school was opened in 1149. by 
Miss Backus under the direction of Gov. Slade. In the summer of 1850 
Mr. Upton t uglit a school. In the fall of 1850. ;wo district schools were 
organized, and teachers employed, attendance large. Rev. Mr. iiobart 
taught the foil male school in St. Paul in the winter of 5 49. using the 
Methodist church for a school room. Average number in attendance. 30. 

In July, 50, D. A.J. Baker commenced a school. Average number 
thirty; second term forty. October, ; 50 the first school in the Territory 
was organized under the statute, in District No. 2 in St. Paul. D. A. 
J. Baker teacher. The school, thus far fas averaged eighty five scholars; 
whole number in attendance one hundred and five. The district owns a 
convenient, house; it was furnished by the Secretary c-f the Territory 
with outline maps Globes, &c. The citizens are now making airange- 
ments to establish an Institution, to be under the direction ol the Tius* 
tees of the District. 

In District No. 3; Mr. Doolittle commenced the first District school 
in November. Aveiage number, thirty five, 'i he studies pursued in 
the schools up to this time, ha'vebeen mostly English. Pupils have been 
thus tar learning the spelling book, the key of all knowledge. The Leg- 
islature of 49. provided the Territory with a free school law. which in its 
.ample provisions arid conciseness of language compares favorably with 
any of the East. There can be no doubt that by its provisions; it will 
place education within the reach of all its youth. 

MINNESOTA SCHOOL LAW. 

The Legislative Assembly of Minnesota, now in session. (March, 
1851.) have, made ample provisions for the education of every child in 



123 

or !o coma into the Territory. The law reflects credit on the wisdom 
and enlightened policy of oar Legislature, and is an evidence that the 
true " iaukee Doodle " spirit is lure, and intends to keep pace with the 

a s e - 

The law is entitled "An act to establish and maintain common schools," 
and provides for the creation of school districts throughout the Territory, 
by the County Commissioners, and authorizes them to levy an annual tax 
of one-fourth of one per cent, on the ad valorem assessment, lor sehool 
purposes, and sets apart for the same purpose twenty-live per cent, of all 
moneys arising from licenses for the sale of spirituous and other liquors, 
and also the proceeds arising from all fines and penalties for breaches of 
the peace, or the violation of any penal law. It prescribes the duties of 
the clerks of the boards of commissioners, in regard to schools; the 
clerks and other officers of the several districts, and the qualification of 
voters in the districts. It »Uo provides for school district libraries ; the 
qualification of teachers ; the selection of sites and the erection of school 
buildings thereon ; and Makes C. K. Smith, Secretary of the Territory, 
a general superintendent of schools for the whole Territory, whose duty 
*• it shall be to visit each school district at least once in each year, to 
counsel with the trustees, and instruct thetn in the organization of new 
school districts; to aid in the selection and examination ot teachers; and 
to advise and assist in procuring a uniform set of text and sehool books 
for all schools in the Territory. It shall also be his duty to make a full 
report annually to the Legislature during the first week of its session, 
setting forth the number and condition of the schools in the Territory — 
how long and at what expense the schools have been taught in each dis- 
trict during the year ; and to make such suggestions as he may think 
proper and requisite in regard to future Jegislation on the subject of 
schools. 



Those who are desirous of removing to a new country, ought to prefer 
Minnesota lor the business of farming. To begin with if you are ot that 
incorrigible class of persons who have taken it into their brains, that no 
part of this gr mi globe is habitable, by reason of the o< Id, to a higher de- 
gree of latitude than about forty degrees north,, we have no use for you. 
Stay in your doorlt ss cabins and go shivering about, in your thin, slazy 
garments ofjeans. through the mingled frost and mud, and the icy sleet 
and chilling fogs of that most execrable of all climates — an hermaphro- 
dite region, half tropical and half frigid — a cross of the North Pole upon 
the Equator. Stay where you are. We want here a race of men. of 
higher, physical and mental powers, of more meat and muscle, of more 
force and ene rgy. The whole of the British Islands, the nursery of that 
vigorous stock of the human family, which first taking root in tiie rocky 
•*'ioreof thi Atlantic has. in two hundred years, uprooted the forests fill- 
ed with barbarous Indians, and like the prolific locust tree, spread wider 
and wider its annual shoots, until its shadows are reflected from the Pa- 
cific — iho.se British Islands lie more than five degrees north of St. Paul. 
The whole of England. Ireland, Scotland, Belgium. Holland, and a part 
of France, lie north of the extreme northern boundary of Minnesota. — 
We are now addressing those over the whole globe, who h ive b^en in- 
vigorated by the cold. We do not know where to look on the face of 



124 

the earth, as far south even as latitude thirty-nine degrees, for a race of 
people who would be worth having in Minnesota. We can dispense 
with th3 rusty Spaniard, the idle Italian, the stupid Turk ; but we want 
sill the Middle, North- Western and Eastern States, and all the people of 
ihe islands and the continent of'the north of Europe, to know what ad- 
vantages Minnesota offers to them. 

We take it as an axiom, that individuals and States must be supplied 
with mainsprings. A man will last longer upon a treadwheel than rust- 
ing oui in a dungeon. The hard fisted Yankee, who wars through his 
lifetime with nature, to win a little field amongst the ledges ot New 
Hampshire, outlives two or three generations of Suckers, who settle down, 
tofo the fertile bottoms of the Illinois, amid vast savannas of Indian corn. 
The Yankee is never satisfied, while any body in the world has a better 
house or better educated children than bis own. V\ henever Nature 
pours profusion into the lap of man — when results come without exer- 
tion, man ceases effort, and his powers are no longer developed. This 
is the inevitable result, to individuals and to States. Nature spoils her 
children by enriching them. This result is the surest in a rich southern 
«oil ; as the climate itself, as well as the profusion of Nature's supplies, 
invites to indolence and ease. The honey bee.t iken to the tropics, it is 
said, will provide stores for one winter; but after that, is as improvident 
as a house fly. 

This is a condition of things not to be found in Minnesota. The 
length of the vvin'.er and the invigorating climate, invite man to exercise. 
He seeks for it — has an appetite lor it, as much as an Englishman has 
for roa^t beef, or for a tramp with his gun. His powers are all right — he 
has a good boiler in him, and steam to work off. 

The human family never has. accomplished anything worthy of note, 
beside the erection of the pyramids, those milestones of ancient centu- 
ries, south of latitude 40 north The history of t^ie world, is written 
chiefly above that parallel. South of it, existed slavery, in one or anoth- 
er form,alwavs, to a great extent, both in ancient or modern times ; and 
wherever consumption contrives to place a saddle upon the back of pro- 
duction, and ride, there will be want and wretchedness; for Nature has 
ordained it for the true welfare of man, that every human being shall la- 
bor, in some honest and useful vocation. 

But there are prejudices against our climate. Some insist upon it, 
that we can not raise Indian corn.. Show them prolific fields of it. as we 
now can hundreds, the naked ears- glittering like gold in the mellow 
.sunshine of autumn, and the ground beneath almost paved with yellow 
pumpkins, and yet they look incredulous, and shake their heads, and 
say "it wont do, I was here last June, and your springs are too late. 
You can't make cawn crap if here, no how, you can fix it, stranger." — 
These wise people have a theory— that maize is adapted solely to the 
latitude they came from; and they are -as stubborn in maintaining it, as 
the geologists are in their theory, that there can be no mineral coal north, 
of the Illinois coal beds ; although, it is actually found here, in various 
localities, ranging south from. the Crow Wing river as far as the mouth 
of the Blue Earth; of the most admirable quality. If we could not raise 
Indian corn, we should remember, that with the exception of a part of It- 
aly and Spain, all populous Europe subsists very well without it. But 
maize, we admit, is the Cereal crop of America. We subscribe to all 
Mr. Clay's beautiful eujpgium upon it; and perhaps the most valuable 



V 



125 

quality of this grain, is. its adaptation to longitudes rather than latitudes. 
There is not an Esquimaux Indian basking by his lake side in the sun- 
shine of his brief, hot summer, who cannot raise and ripen one variety 
or another of maize. From the delta of the Mississippi to the remotes t, 
spring branch that supplies Lake hasca, the head of the river, this crop 
can be raised, and is raised and ripened every year. What tolly, then,, 
to contradict these palpable facts. The same reasoning applies to wheat; 
yet, in fact, we live too far south for sure crops of winter vvneat. Thoso 
choice wheat lands of Europe, on the shores of the Baltic, are far north 
of us. At Red River, many hundred miles north of St. Paul, they rais* 
better wheat than ever goes into the markets of Milwaukee or Chicago- 
There is not a plant of any description, raised in Wisconsin, that does 
not ripen here. We have tomatoes here abundant and ripe, in a garden 
which was not fenced until June. Last season, we gathered cucumber* 
ia November, which were planted very late, for pickles. 

Our soil is generally productive — on this side of the river, although 
much of it is sandy, it is a very productive soil; not as compared with 
the Middle or Eastern States, but as compared with Wisconsin and Illi- 
nois. There are fields here, which the French have cultivated without 
manuring tor twenty years, which produce good crops, barren as the sou 
may look to a Sucker, from the bottoms of Eel river or the Big Muddy.— 
The farmers here, on the average, get larger crops per acre, than we 
have ev j r seen raised in any other part of the West. We do not say 
that all Minnesota is fertile; but that it will compare favorably, infertili- 
ty, with any portion ot the world. 

Consider then, our advantages in regard to health. No billious fevers. 
do shaking with ague in the harvest fields, no loss of crops by sickness 
Is this nothing ( 

Of the extent and value of our home market for produce, it is needles* 
to speak, hi no other part of the West is there anything like an equal 
demand for agricultural products; to supply the Indian tribes on th» 
Minnesota and Mississippi rivers, to supply the forts, and to supply the 
great and increasing business of the pineries and the manufacture of 
lumber. Every farmer has a natural tariff to protect him, equal to ths 
cost of shipping the same kinds of produce which he offers in market, 
from several hundred miles below, by steamboat ; added to the insurance 
and the profits of the produce dealer — all which, is more than fifty per 
cent, premium in his favor, over the farmer who lives down the river, 
and who has no such home market as ours, at his door. Add to thisth* 
cheapness of choice lands in Minnesota, our freedom from the burden of 
a State Government, and the moral, intelligent, and industrious charac- 
ter ot our people, and the immigrant, if he is a man, and expects to livft 
hy exertion, will find more inducements to make his homo in Minnesota* 
th&u in any of the billious regions south of it. 



THE FRUITS AND ROOTS OF MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

Crab apples grow in the neighborhood of Traverse des Sioux, back 
noma distance from the river, and probably in other parts also. Cran- 
berries are gathered in quantities on the lower St. Peters, but do not 
grsw up towarda its source. Strawberries are abundant in some pari*. 



126 



Plums, choke cherries, gooseberries, raspberries, black currants, black 
haws, and grapes, are found, more or less, u 11 over the country, in such 
localities as are protected from the prbirie fires. 

Several roots, much used by the Dakotas for food, especially in tho 
oummers iason, grow in the valley of the Minnesota. The vsi/ichincha 
is a root quite eatable when boiled, it grows on the lower St. Peters, in 
the sand along the margin of the river and lakes. Its average size may 
be not far from a hen's egg. The mdo, or Dakota potatoe. deserves also 
to be mentioned. It grows commonly in the bottom lands, and except 
that it is somewhat oval in shape, it resembles in its vine-like top, as. 
well as in its taste, the sweet potatoe. 

The iipsi m a, or Dakota turnip, grows only in Hie high and dry prai- 
rie. It seeks the high points and gravelly hills, where it continues to. 
grow in size from year to year, increasing with every summer that passes 
over it. The root is roundish or oval, and of various sizes, according 
to its age. It has a thick, hard rind, which the Dakotas usua.ly remove 
with their teeth. During the months of June and July, when the top can 
be easily discovered in the grass, the Indians of the Uppor Minnesota 
depend very much for subsitence on the tipsintia. They eat it both raw 
end cooked. This root has lately acquired a European repuiation. Mr. 
Lamarep.eot, of France, has, within a few years past, introduced it into 
his native country, and the savans of Paris, it is said, have given it the 
name of" Pieotianna." It has been supposed that this dry prairie root 
might yet take an important place among the vegetables which are culti- 
vated for tb,s support of human life; but this expectation will probably 
end in disappointment. S. JR. R. 

The writer has overlooked the Psiuch. which is of considerable impor- 
tance as an article of food. In shape it resembles the white turnip, ami 
is generally perhaps one and a half inches in diameter. It grows in 
shallow lakes, and is raised from its muddy bed by females, whjo use. 
their ftet for this purpose. Ths Psinch is palatable and quite nutri- 
tious. 

Another root, which the Indians call Umnich, (bean) is abundant oa 
the river bottoms, and is much used for food. It is the size of a large 
bean, and resembles it in shapes. 

The Chebecha root, which resembles the pea, both in size and shape, 
is found in some localities. 

It grows in marshy ground on the prairie. This luxury is collected 
and garnered by mice, in quantities varying from one to lour quarts in a 
place. The Indians sometimes rob the mice of considerable quantities 
s»f Chebecha., Thus mice serve men. 



LAYING OF THS CQIiNER STONE OF THE EPISCOPAL 

CHURCH. 

On Thursday last, the fifth instant, the corner stone of ttae new Epis- 
copal chinch, in St. Paul, was laid with the usual ceremonies. 

The clergy of the Territory, the Rev. E. G. Gear. U. S. A., Chaplain 
M Fort Snelling; the Rev. Jams S. Breck ; the Rev. T. YVileoxson ; and 
the Rev. John A. Merrick, Deacon, me* at the residence of Judge Lara* 
bcrt, adjoining the site. 



127 



At the appointed hear, a procession having been formed, the clergy, 
habited in their simple white vestments, recited antiphonally the 112th 
psalm, while approaching the site. 

The service was read by the Rev. Mr. Gear, at the request of the Rev. 
Mr. Breck and his associates of the Mission. 

The list of the following deposites was read by the Rev. Mr. Breck : 

The iloly Bible; The Book ofCovnmon Prayer; The Church Alma- 
nac for 185J; The Banner of the Cro^s; The Churchman ; Trie Gos- 
pel Messenger; The Chronicle and Register (St. Paul) ; The Pioneer 
(St. Paul) ; with a document containing the names of the Presidents of 
the United States, the Governor of this Territory, the Missionary, Bish- 
op, and Clergy of the Territory. 

These were deposited in a tin box within the stone. 

The corner stone was then laid by the Rev. Mr. Gear, and under the 
name of •* Christ Church, in the town of St. Paul." 

The address was delivered by the Rev. Mr. Merrick. 

The church is to be erected in the early pointed style, with a spire, 
surmounted by a cross. 

The dimensions of the church are 20 feet wide, and 65 feet long, in- 
eluding chancel and tower ; the spire is 52 feet in height. 

We cordially wish it and all concerned God speed. 



UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA AT THE FALLS OF ST. AN- 
THONY. 

The Legislature of Minnesota have passed a law entitled 44 An act io< 
incorporate the University of Minnesota at the Falls of St. Anthony. " 
The law provides that" the proceeds of all lands that may hereafter be- 
granted by the United States to the Territory, for the support of a Uni- 
versity, shall be and remain a perpetual fund to be called the • Univer- 
sity fund,' the interest of which shall be appropriated to the support of 
a University.'' The law further provides that the object of the Univer- 
«ity shall be to provide the inhabitants of this Territory with the means, 
of acquiring a thorough knowledge of the various branches of literature, 
science, and the arts ;" and that " the government of the University shall 
be vested in a board of twelve regents, who shall be elected by the Legis- 
lature,*' and whose duties are prescribed in s^ijd law. " The University 
shall consist of fivo departments, to wit : Science, Literature and the 
Arts, a department of Law and Medicine, the theory and practice of 
Elementary Instruction, and the department of Agriculture. 

The University shall be located at the " Falls of St. Anthony. " 44 The 
regents shall make a report annually to the Legislature, exhibiting tne 
state and progress of the University in its several departments, the course 
of study, the number of professors and students, the amount of expendi- 
tures and such other information as they may deem proper, etc.'" Th&> 
law contains many other provisions ; but the reader is referred to th» 
law itself for information on the subject. On the fourth of March, 1851,. 
the Legislature met in joint convention and elected the following genii©? 
men a* Regents for said university, to wit : 



128 



Alexander Ramsey, Henry II. Sibley, C. K. Smith, Henry M. Rice, 
W. R. [Marshal, Franklin Steele, Isaac Atwater, 13. B. Meeker, A. Van 
Vorhees, Socrates Nelson, N. C. D. Taylor, J. VV. Furber. 



The Rev. C. Hobart, of St. Paul, by request of the Secretary of this 
Society, furnishes the following in relation to churches and church move- 
ments in this Territory : 

RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS IN MINNESOTA. 

The first effort to establish Christianity in this Territory, was probably 
made by the Roman Catholic church. And although names and dates 
cannot be furnished, by me, yet it is inferable from the known zeal of her 
priesthood, and the fact that almost the entire trade with the Indians, for 
more than fifty years, has been in the hands o r French voyageurs. who 
are mostly zealous Catholics. Chapels have been built at Lake Pepin, 
St. Paul, and Mendota. They are rude, primitive structures, built most- 
ly of logs, anu appear to have been erected several years. Rev. Mr. 
Raveaux officiates at St. Paul and Mendota. Last year a missionary 
was sent to Pembina. 

INDIAN MISSIONS — AMERICAN BOARD. 

The first in the Territory, so far as I can learn, was established at 
Bandy Lake in 1832 — Edmund F. Ely, Teacher and Catechist. The 
second at Leech Lake, 1833 — Win, T. Boutwell, Missionary and Teach- 
er. In 1834 a mission was commenced at Fond du Lac. head of Lake 
Superior — E. F. Ely, Teacher and Catechist. In 1835 another mission 
was established at Pokegoma. (Snake river.) The above were intimate- 
ly connected with missions at La Pointe and Yellow Lake, now within 
the bounds of Wisconsin. All the missions within the Territory allud- 
ed to above, were continued with some variations until within a lew 
years, when they were given up. 

in 1835. Dr. Williamson, now of Kaposia, visited this country for the 
purpose of establishing missions among the Sioux. Since that time, in 
connection with Messrs. G. 11. and S. VV. Pond, Stevens, Rigss, and 
Huggins. and perhaps others, missions have been established at Lsc- 
qui-Parle, Traverse des Sioux, and at several other places along the St, 
Peters. Also at Kaposia and Red Wing on the Mississippi. These* 
missions are still continued, (with the exception of one at Lake II ar- 
riet.) and the missionaries have labored amid difficulties and privation* 
with an amount of zeal and perserverance worthy of all praise, but witta 
comparatively little success. 

METHODIST MISSIONS. 

Missions were established . by the Methodist Episcopal Church, r» 
1837, by Rev. Alfred Brunson and Rev. David King, at Kaposia and St 
Peters, among the Sioux. In 1838. these missions were continued ; and. 

Ml 1839, Rev. S. Spates, Huddleston, George Copway, and Joho 

J&kfleoa, (the two lastnanred, converted Chippewas,) were front to Crow 



) 



129 



Wing and Sandy Lake as missionaries to the Chippewas. The Crow 
Wing mission, after a few years, was given up, and a mission establish- 
ed at Fond du Lac. 

The mission at Kaposia was changed to Red Rock, and continued 
until 1842. when it was discontinue'!. At present there are but two 
missions of the Methodist episcopal Church to the Indians, within the 
bounds of the Territory, viz: At Sandy Lake and Mille Lac — the last 
established last year, in addition to the missionaries already named, 
Rev. Messrs. B. F. Kavenaugh, H. Kavenaugh, J. VV. Pope, G. Whit- 
ford, H. J. Brace, and McReynolds, have labored more or less in 

the Territory, among the Indians. 

OBERLIN MISSIONS. 

In 1843, Rev. F. Ayerand wife, assisted by Messrs. Spencer, Wright, 
Barnard, and Dr. Lewis, were sent out by a Presbyterian Missionary So- 
ciety, located at Oberlin, Ohio. Since that time, missions have been es- 
tablished by them among the Chippewas at Red Lake, Cass Lake, and 
Little Lake Winnepeg. These are continued at the present time. 

SWISS MISSION. 

This mission was established at Mount Trumbelo, by Rev. Messrs. 
Denton and Gavin, in 1837, and removed to Red Wing Village, at the 
head of Lake Pepin, in 1838; continued until Mr. Denton's health failed 
in 1845, when it was given up to the American Board, who still have a 
mission there. 

MISSIONS TO THE INHABITANTS OF MINNESOTA TERRITORY. 

Methodist Missions. 

The first missionary sent to this country to preach to the white set- 
tlers, was the Rev. Mr. Hurlbut. of the Methodist Episcopal Church. — 
lie came hi the fall of 1844, and left in 1845. In 1846, Rev. J. W. Put- 
nam, of the same church, was appointed to the St. Croix mission, which 
included all the settlements on the Mississippi and St. Croix rivers, above 
Point Douglass. He was continued two years, and was succeeded in 
1848 by Rev. Benjamin Close. 

In 1849, three missionaries were sent to this Territory, and stationed 
as follows : Stillwater, James Harrington; St. Anthony Flails, F>nos 
Stevens; St. Paul, C. Hobart. 

1850, Rev. James Harrington was re- appointed to Stillwater; Rev. L. 
Dickens to St. Paul ; Rev. C. A. Nevvcombe to St. Anthony Falls. — 
Point Douglass was supplied with Rev. L. Nobles. J. Harrington died 
in August, which caused the removal of L. Nobles to Stillwater, and the 
appointment of Rev. J. W. Dow to Point Douglass. C. Hobart was ap- 
pointed Presiding Elder of Minnesota District, including all Minnesota 
Territory and that part of Wisconsin north of Wisconsin river. 

BAPTIST MISSIONS. 

In February, 1849, Rev. Mr. Parsons was appointed by the American 
H s 9 



130 



Baptist Home Mission Society, as missionary to St. Paul. Arrived May 
I7tlr In the fall of the .same year, Rov. Mr. Brown was sent out by tho 
same Society* and stationed at Stillwater, in IC5J. Mr. Parsons was 
continued at St. Paul; Mr. Brown appointed to St. Anthony Falls, and 
Rev. Mr. Webber sent to Stillwater. 



PEESBYTE1UAN AND CONGREGATIONAL MISSIONS. 



In Mny, 1849, Rev. Mr. Neil! visited St. Paul, and preached once; 
returned to Illinois, then to Philadelphia — was appointed missionary l.y, 
this place by the Home Missionary Society and returned with his family 
in July. Rev. Mr. W hitney came to Stillwater in the fall of the some 
year. 1850, Mr. Neill was continued at St. Paul ; Mr. V\ hitney at Still- 
water; and during the tail Rev. Mr. Seccomb arrived at St. Anthony 
Falls, and the Rev. Mr. (Jail to Point Douglass and Cottage Grove. 



EPISCOPAL MISSIONS. 



In the summer of 1853. Rev. Messrs. Breck, Wilcoxon, and Merrick', 
located themselves at St. Paul as missionaries of the above named chu:ch- 
to the Territory. They visit every neighborhood on foot, once in three 
works, from Port Ripley to Point Douglass, and thence to the Falls of 
Si. Croix, besides maintaining regular service in St. PauL 



ORGANIZATION OF CHURCHES. 



The first Protestant church organized in the Territory, was organized-- 
at Fort Snelling, in 1833 or 1834. as I am informed, by Dr. \\ illiamson,. 
'Hon. H. H. Sibley, and Col. Loom is. Elders. This church was dissol- 
ved soon alter. The first perm anent organization was of the Methodist 
Church, in 1844, by Rev. Mr. Hurl but. 

The following table will show when and by whom churches were or- 
ganized in St. Paul : 



TABLE SHOWING THE ORGANIZATION OF CHURCHES IN ST. PAUL. 



Methodist E. Church, 
Baptist Church, 
Presbyterian Church, 
Episcopalian Church, 



Wiien organized. 

Dec. 31. 1843. 

Dec. 29. 1849, 
Jan. 6. 1850. 
Not organized. 



Ministers. 



Rev B. Close, 
tlev J C Parsons 
Rev E D Neill. 
Rev. Mr. Breck 



no whe: 
onz'd 

8 

12 

9 



ko. at 

ircgent. 

52 

14 
15 



CHURCH ORGANIZATION AT ST. ANTHONY FALLS. 



Chu: e ;ea. 

Methodist E. Church, 
Baptist Church, 
Presbyterian Church, 
Episcopal i an C h urcb, 



Wiien organised. 

Oct. mm 

July 13 If 50. 
Sept. 1, 1850. 

Not organized. 



By whom. 

Rev. E. Stevens. 
Rev VV C Brown 
Rev Mr Wheeler 



KB whei 
orgz'd 

13 
13 
12 



NO. &t 

iresent. 
24 
18 
15 



/ 



131 

TABLE OF STEAMBOAT ARRIVALS, ETC., AT FORT SPELL- 
ING FOR THE FAST SIX YEARS. 

It shows tho regular and rapid increaac of business on the river, also 
the remarkable regularity or the appearance of water fowl in our waters, 
of which we have such abundant supplies, almost uniformly on and alter 
the sixth day of every March. 

1344_41 arrivals. Otter, Harris, first boat, April Gth. Geese end 
ducks flying, March Qlh. Mississippi opened March 20th; closed No- 
vember 23d 1" 1343. 

jt845 — 43 arrivals. Otter, Harris. April Gth, first boat. Geese and 
ducks flying, March Gth. Mississippi closed 2Gth November. Coldc.t 
day Feb. 19th, 13 degrees below zero. 

134G — 21 arrivals. Lynx, Atchison, March 31st, first boat. Ducks 
and geese dying March 1st. Coldest day January 25th, 19 degrees be- 
low zero. Mississippi closed Dec. 6th. 

1347 — 47 arrivals. First boat, Cora, Throckmorton, April 17th. — 
Mississippi closed November 29th. Geese and ducks Hying March 17. 
Coldest day February I8lh. 37 degrees below zero. 

1843 — 63 arrivals. First boat, Senator, Harris, April 7th. Mississip- 
pi closed December 4th. Feb. 10th , 26* degrees below zero. Geese 
and ducks flying March Gth. 

1849—85 arrivals. Highland Mary, Atchison, first boat April 9th. — 
November 18th, first snow. December 7th, Mississippi closed. Dec. 
33th, coldest day, 27 degrees below zero. Geese and ducks flying 
March 4th. 

185J— 104 arrivals. Highland Mary, April 19th. Nov. 15th first 
snow. Coldest day, February 3d, 23 degrees below zero. Geese and 
ducks flying March 10th. Dec. 4th, closed the Mississippi at St. Antho- 
ny. 

April 19th. Steamboats Highland Mary and Nominee arrived through 
the ice at St. Paul landing. 

May 24ih. The steamboat Gov. Ramsey made her first trip from the 
Falls of St. Anthony to Sauk Rapids. 100 miles. This was the first at- 
tempt ever made to run a steamboat above the falls. 

July. Great flood this month in the Upper Mississippi and its tribu- 
taries; the steamers Yankee, Nominee ana Anthony Wayne, taking ad- 
vantage of it. ascended the St. Peters river, from 100 to 200 miles further 
than its waters had ever been rippled by the paddle-wheels of a steam- 
boat. 

July 25th. The annual trading caravan from the half-breed settle- 
ment; on the Red river of the North — in latitude 49 degrees — airived in 
St. Paul, The distance travelled was over GOO miles. The caravan 
consisted of some two hundred ox carts, heavily laden with furs, &c.» 
ana attended by several hundred men, women and children. 

Dee. 3. The Mississippi river closed at St. Paul. The last boat of 
the season left tfrisj port on the 19th of November. 



To the Officers and Members 

of the Minnesota Historical Society: 
Gentlemen: — Right sorry am I that, owing to the distance of Lac- 
qui-Parle from Saint Paul, and the season of the year at which your an- 
nual meeting takes place, as well as on account of other pressing duties, 
1 am unable to answer in person to the invitation kindly extended to 
me, by the Honorable Executive of the Society, to address }ou on the 
coming occasion. The address which I have prepared has been placed 
in the hands of the Hon. M. McLeod, to be used as the society may 
judge best. 

Connected with the subject therein presented, is a point to which 1 
wish, for a moment, to call your attention; viz: The destiny of these 
Indian tribes. It is well understood by all thinking persons, that in 
their present uncivilized condition, they cannot long continue. Civil- 
ization, as it passes onward, must encircle them with its blessings, or 
sweep them from the face of the earth. They must be civilized and 
christianized or perish. It seems also to be passing from a state of theory 
to that of a generally admitted fact, that the Indians, in any state, cannot 
long continue to exist as a separate people. The great American people, 
will without doubt, absorb every other interest and every other existance 
within its wide spreading reach. 

There are certain great and predominant influences which direct the 
moral and political formations and transformations, which are silently 
and constantly taking plaee in our country. The result of these influ- 
ences is the production of a homogeneous whole v out of a heterogeneous 
mass. To a certain extent this is admitted by all — but there are certain 
elements which politicians, who have grown up under particular influ- 
ences, declare to be not capable of combination. Nevertheless this com- 
bination is going on very rapidly, but such persons have not the sagacity 
to perceive it, or moral honesty enough to admit it. Owing to various 
causes operating for evil, the unity of the race has been apparently broken 
up, insomuch that it has come to be denied. That unity will be restored 
by the progress of science and art, and especially by the universal pre- 
valence of the Gospel of the Prince of peace — producing a brotherhood 
of nations. 

As it regards these Indians, the question, with philanthropists and 
christians, is, not whether they can be expected to preserve their na- 
tional existence. It is admitted that they cannot. The « fforf to keep 
them in that state has already operated in a manner very prejudicial to the 
interests of many small tribes; but the question is, what boon shall we hold 
out to them ; to what place shall we assign them; to what kind of civilization 
&hall we introduce them? Shall we refuse to grant them the rights ot 
citizens, when they become fitted to exercise those rights? If so we 
press them back into barbarism. Shall we not rather hold out to them, 
with the restraints of law, its blessing and privileges? At present an In- 



133 



dian has very little inducement to change his habits. He thereby cuts 
himself Off trim the sympathies of his own people, and he hears no friendly 

voice, emanating from our legislative halls, saying to him, come up 
higher. This is a subject for our legislators to consider well. 

And what is the type of civilization to which we shall try to introduce 
them? Shall it not be that which eminently characterizes our own age — 
and which has been produced, more than by any other influence, by the 
dissemination of the religion of the bible? Where the Bible is not read 
by the common people, there the civilization is of a lower grade. Edu- 
cation in the broadest sense of the word — education in the arts :\s well as 
the letters of civilization — education for time and also eternity, should be 
.sought for them. Nothing short of this will meet the obligations resting 
upon us as a people. In the language of Prof. Gammell, in his excellent 
"History of the Am. Baptist Missions." "Their claims upon the sympa- 
thies and philanthropy of Am. christians are, if possible, stronger than 
those of any other portion of mankind. It is for us that their 4 heritage 
has been despoiled, and they have been scattered and wasted, and it is 
to us that Providence has assigned the broad domain, which they lately 
held by the undisputed possession of centuries. We are daily treading 
amid the graves of their dead, and are occupying the ancient homes 
where they once dwelt in barbarian pride and power. 

, In their civil relations to the American people, they have been styled 
the adopted children of the republic; they are under its protection and 
within its guardian care. Their condition, on this account, the more 
earnestly invites the ceaseless endeavors of christian philanthrophy, to 
raise them from degradation, and reclaim them from barbarism, and 
pour into their darkened natures, the light of the Gospel, which has made 
our national condition and prospects so different from theirs." 

Permit me to subscribe myself, 

Yours very truly, 
Lac-qui-Parle, Dec. 2, 1850. S. R. RIGGS. 



ADDRESS OF S. R. RIGGS. 

Language is the vehicle of thought; the medium of communication be- 
tween one being and another. It is a combination of arbitrary sounds 
and signs, by wnich one mind communicates its thoughts, feelings and 
purposes to other minds similarly constituted. 

From the Bible history of our race, it appears that man was created, 
not only with the power of speech, but with the complete knowledge of a 
language adequate to the fulfillment of all the high a id noble purposes of 
communicating freely and fully with his kindred man, and also with his 
creator God. And the first specimen of written language, of which we 
have any authentic account, is that which was graven by the finger of 
God, on the two tables of stone, on '-the mount that burned with lire." — 
Hence the inference, that language, both spoken and written, is from 
God. 

Human language must necessarily be an imperfect medium of com- 
municating the feelings and purposes of mind. It is the channel of 
thought, and is deep or shallow, as thought is deep or vigorous, or other- 
wise. And as the abundant rain showers from heaven, falling upon. 



134 



earth's surface, often make new channels of communication wiih th* 
great ocean, so mind, when invigorated and enlarged, work* its thought* 
out through new channels, forming new words ajid forms of speech, or 
imparting new meanings to those already in use. licnce the study of 
language is ever new and ever interesting. This .must have been so 
when "all the earth was of one language and one speech," and nothing 
prevented free communication between all the members of the human 
family. Cut much more has it become a study of intense interest, 
since, as a cheek on rebellion, God has scattered and separated theona 
great family of man, by introducing a diversity of languages. 

It is a remarkable fact that all languages, barbarous as well as civilized, 
present but different shades of the same mental philosophy. From this 
source also it seems to me, is derived one of the strongest arguments for 
the unity of the race. At the same time, a careful comparison of the 
languages of the various tribes of men, will ultimately ptove the most 
certain guide to ascertaining their proper place in the great family, and 
the time of their divergence from the parent stock. 

As darkness and barbarism and war have, in the past ages of the 
world, been powerfully productive of dialects and languages; so may it 
not be hoped that the spreading of light and knowledge — the late won- 
derful applications of science to art — the steamship, the rail road and 
telegraph — with principles of peace and the religion of the Bible, may 
be the means of restoring the family of man again, if not to one, at least 
to the use of a few languages? Christianity and civilization, in their 
progress, are even now accomplishing this object. Some of the lan- 
guages of our own American Indians have already perished. And it 
does not require the spirit of prophecy to foretell that this will be the des- 
tiny of all. It would seem highly probable, at least, that the English 
language, before many centuries, will prevail over the whole of .North 
America. All others will give place and be merged into it. 

Having made these general remarks, I may announce as the subject 
for the present occasion, "The Dakota Language." And I do this the 
more cheerfully, because the members of this Society, as well as the cit- 
zens of Minnesota generally, have lately manifested a kindly interest in 
the welfare of the Dakota people, as' well as a laudable curiosity in regard 
to their language. 

The Dakotas or Sioux number about twenty-five thousand persons.' — 
Besides these, the Assinnaboins are said to speak substantially :he same 
language. Dakota tradition says that they were originally a family or 
clan of the Sioux, and were separated by a quarrel which arose about a 
woman.* 

Many words in the Osage language are the same as in Dakota. And 



* itseoras that quarrels about women, have very often affected the separation of 
bands and made enemies of nations Mr. A Renville states, that about one hundred 
and fifty years ago, or in the days of his great grand mother, when the Mdewakanlon- 
wan were living about Mille Lac, a quarrel of this kind took place, which resulted in the 
going off of a large family of Dakotas to the Chippewas. They became incorporated 
with the Chippewas, and many of the pres?nt band of Hole- in^the-day, and also of 
those who live on the Saint Croix, are the descendants of that Dakota colony, fie 
says that many of these Chippewas still trace their connection to Tatankamani and Oh- 
nashkinyan, who are also the ancestors of Wakute's band at Red Wing. If this 
statement is true, it can doubtless be verified by those who live among the Chippewas, 
and will be a matter of interest in the history of both tribes, 



135 



the sam3 is probably (rue in regard to tbe Omaha. They appear te 
be branches of the same family. 

In the I ingubge aa spoken by thje different bands of those properly 
denominated Dakotas, considerable differ enpe exists. The intercourse 
between the Mdewakantonwans on the, Mississippi and lower St. Peters, 
and the, Warpetonwaus. VYarp; kutes and a part of the Sisitonwan fami- 
Iv, h is beeij so constant, that bui slight differences are discoverable, in 
their manner of speaking. In some instinct's where the Warpetonwaus 
user/, son) a of the Mdewakanton wans so modify the sound that it be- 
oom \s .'; and where the former use A, the latter sometimes use 11. — 
As a in Uter of course, some few words have currency in one band, which 
are not us ?d. perhaps not generally known by the others. Bui no dif- 
ferences of language which exist, are of such a kind as to impede the 
free intercourse oi thought. '1 he Sisitoii w ans of Lake Travel ■* e and the 
prairies present more ddfjtvnces in their speech. One of the most 
marked of these, is their use of na for the diminutive t rmina- 
tion. As there is less frequent intercourse between them and the lsan- 
ties.l (a name given by the Missouri Indians, to those living on the St. 
Peters and Mississippi,) their provincialisms are more numerous. And 
from th dr connections with the lhanktonwans of the prairie, they have 
adopted some of th ir forms of speech. The chief peculiarity of the 
Ihahktonwan dialect is, their almost universally substituting k for h. — 
The Titonw.-iiis have made farther inov ations. They use g hard for li of 
the Isiuties and /j of the lhanktonwans, and rejecting d altogether, use I 
in its place. By the bands of Dakotas east of the James' river, hardg is not 
used, except final in a syllable where a con.tr action has taken place, and 
/is not eirdatall. Thus diaupakinilim 1, (a wagon or cart,) oil he War- 
petonwans. become clwiipmmhniMt in the mouth of a Mdew kantonwan, 
and chanp tkmikma in that of an lhanktonwan and chanpngmigma with 
a Titonwan. lida (to go home) of the isanties.is kda in the lhankton- 
wan dialect, and i>la in the Titonwan. Many words too. are entirely dif- 
ferent, as fir example, isan, a knife — the Yitonwans say milla, and the 
lhanktonwans, minna. Isantanka. the name by which the people of 
the United St Ues. are known on the Mississippi and Saint Peteis. becomes 
Minna-h uiska, and Millahanska on the Missouri. Young persons, pass- 
ing from liie Mississippi to the Missouri, and listening, for the first time, 
to the speech of iho Titon wans, find considerable difficulty in under- 
standing them; and the same is true in regard to young Titonwans, 
when first they visit the villages of the Isanties. 

The Dakota may be said to resemble other languages in the fact, that 
it consists etymologically of articles, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, 
adv rbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections. In its syntacti- 
cal arrangement it is like other primitive languages, and unlike the Kng- 
lish and other modern languages. This i shall have occasion to illus- 
trate in another connection. 

The Latin word " Mamma" was originally Greek, and has come down, 
in some form, into most modern languages. But the predominant mean- 
ing attached to it by the old Romans, viz: "Breast, pap. from which 
the young is nourished." seems to have been unknown to their eastern 
neighbors. This meaning we retain in mainmal. mammalia, etc. The 
Dakota word mama " is used with this same Latin signification. It is 



t Isau-ati, or Isan-yati, is the Dakota worJ. 



136 



a curious fact that " mama*' refers to the sustenance afforded the child 
by the mother, and " papa" is used by the Indians of the prairie for dried 
meat, the food of men. 

A strong likeness is seen in the Dakota pronouns " ma," " mi," (me) 
and " miye" (me-ya) to the Latin " mini," k * me," «' meus," etc ; and 
some resemblance in sound exists between 11 tu " and " tuus " of the Lat- 
ins, and *• tuwe" of the Dakotas, but the latter means who. When I 
first commenced learning the Dakota language, this likeness in sound, 
and unlikeness in sense, was. on several occasions, the cause of my 
making ludicrous mistakes. The Dakota pronoun M iye." he or she is 
the same in sense, and probably nearly the same in sound wiih the Latin 
" ille " — the double 1 having the force of y, as at present in the French, 
lenguage. 

The only Dakota word, beside " mama," which T have noticed as hav- 
ing a very strong resemblance to the English, both in sense and sound, 
is *' skepa " (ska-pa) meaning to evaporate, escape. A friend of mine 
notices a resemblance between the French word "couler" and the Da- 
kota" kuse," both meaning to leak. 
In Dakota there are two articles, wan and kin or chin. It is sufficient 
for the purposes of this occasion, to say that they are used, generally, 
where the English a or an and the would be required, but not always, 
and that their place is after the noun, etc.. never before it. 

In all languages the names of things form a very important Class of 
words. The Dakota vocabulary of trees and shrubs covers probably all, 
or nearly all. the varieties which grow in their country. 'I heir names 
for herbs and grasses are more limited, being confined chiefly to such 
as are known by them to possess medicinal properties, and such as are 
the food of certain animals. While they have names for the fruits that 
grow in their country, they have very few specific names for flowers. 
The fish in their waters, and the birds and fowls of the air. whether res- 
ident or otherwise in their own country, have all names ; and it is not 
strange, though somewhat humiliating, to find the Dakotas better ac- 
quainted with the names and habits of these inhabitants of the waters, 
air, and earth, than we are. Their nomenclature ot quadrupeds living 
in their country, is, of course, not defective ; but their knowledge of the 
horse has not extended back many centuries, as is manifest from the fact 
that they call him Shuktanka and Shunka wakan. great dog and spirit 
dog. This is a like formation with mazakan and maza wakan, spirit 
iron, their name for a gun. Another example of the same kind is found 
in Wakantanka, Great Spirit. 

They have been so much engaged, from time immemorial, in dissect- 
ing wild animals, that their vocabulary of terms denoting the different 
parts of the body, is much more extensive and definite than exists in 
our own language, aside from the technical terms employed in the sci- 
ence of anatomy. But in terms to express abstract ideas, the Dakota 
language is undoubtedly defective. The ideas themselves, not having 
entered their minds, they needed not the clothing ot words. They do 
not appear to have any words corresponding to color, time, and space. 
They do not feel the need of them. They can talk of the different kinds 
of color, as white, black, red, etc. ; and they have words to express the 
great divisions of time, as day. and night, summer and winter; while 
ideas respecting space are expressed by long and short, far and near. 
Like the ancient Latins, their virtue is bravery, and their sin (woartani) 



137 



is not a violation of the law of God, but the transgression of their own 
customs, which induces disease or physical evil of some kind. i>ut of 
this defect we have no reason to complain. The teachings of the Bibie 
have wonderfully changed the meaning attached to many words in our 
own language, and they are capable of working the same transformations 
for the Uakotas. 

In this connection, it is only just to remark, that the language under 
consideration is possessed of great flexibility ; almost all words express- 
ing quality may be so changed as to stand for those qualities in the ab- 
stract. And nouns of the instrument, nouns of the agent or aetor, as 
well as abstract nouns, may be formed from most verbs. 

Of necessity there are now many compound nouns, as Wata-tanka. a 
large boat; Peta-wata, a fire or steum boat, of wata, a canoe. [The 
names of men and women are usually compounded words. Win used 
at the end, shows that it is a woman's name. Dan. as an affix, is 
diminutive, as wakpa, a river ; wakpadan, a small stieam. 

The birthright names of children, m a family, is a peculiarity in the 
Dakota language. The first-born child, if a son. is Caske (eha ska) ; if 
a daughter, Winona ( Wee-iio-na). The second third fourth, and fifth, 
if boys, arc Hepan (lla-pan), ilepi (Hapee), Catan (Cha tan), and Hake 
(Ilaka); if girls, they are respectively ilapan, ilapistinna, VV anske, and 
Wihake. 

The language of relationship among the Dakotas presents some inte- 
resting facts. O-ie's father's brothers are all fathers; and one's mother's 
sisters are all mothers. Their children are brothers and sisters. The 
mother's brothers, and the father's sisters, are uncles and aunts ; and 
their children, cousins. A woman calls Ii t elder brother timdo; a man 
calls his elder brother chinye ; while they both agree in calling a young- 
er brother misunka. A woman calls her elder sister michun ; and her 
younger sister, mitanka. A man calls his older sister tanke ; and his 
younger sister, tankshi. A man calls his brother in law tahan ; and his 
sister-in-law, hanka : his male cousins, tahanshi ; and his female 
cousins, hankashi. A woman calls her husband's sisters ichepan ; and 
her female cousins and husband's brother's wife, ichepanshi. Her hus- 
band's brothers she calls shiche ; and her male cousins, and also her 
husband's sister's husbands, icheshi. The same words are used, bv 
both males and females, for grandfather and grandmother, nephew, niece, 
and grandchild. Son-in-law and daughter-in-law are desigi.ated by th<; 
same word. The parents of two persons who are married call each 
other omawaheton, for which we have no corresponding word in Eng- 
lish. 

Dakota nouns, generally, are not properly declinable. To form the 
possessive or genitive case, however, they usually prefix or affix pro- 
nouns ; for example, sunka, younger brother; mi-sunka. my younger 
brother; nisunka, your younger brother ; sunkaku, his or her younger- 
brother. J\iichinkshi, my son; nichinkshi. your son ; chinkintku, his or 
her son. This affix of the third person is confined to nouns signifying 
relationship. The idea of property is usually conveyed by mita nita and. 
ta, contractions of tawa, thus; shunka, a dog; miUishunkc, my dog;- 
nitashunke, your dog; tashunke. his or her dog. 

I know not that any one has ever had reason to complain of a defect, 
either in the number or power of the Dakota pronouns. Indeed, to minds 
constituted like ours, accustomed to regard repetitions as unnecessary 



138 



there appears to be, often, quite a redundancy. A Dakota can say sim* 
ply, I love anything, as in washtowadaka ; or he can use two pronoun* 
referring to the same person, and thus give emphasis to his former ex- 
pression, as raish washtewadaka, I I love. He can say mitawa, mine* 
simply; or miye mitawa, me mine. In a compounded verb he can use 
two pronuuns, as wahimdotanka. 1 came, I sat down ; and in most cases 
of this kind one pronoun would be incorrect. The pronouns, i, am, 
you, are comprehended in the single syllable ci (che) ; that is. when the 
action passes from the first to the second person. When introduced 
into the verb, the objective pronouns take precedence over the subjec- 
tive, except in the case of the first person plural, and with the second per- 
son objective, either singular or plural.* 

Words expressing quality, in Dakota, seem to be neither more nor 
less important than they are in other languages. But, in this respect, 
the language, must be regarded as somewhat defective, as the word to 
must be used to express both green and blue ; and skuya means Mveet, 
sour, and salt, and is the only word which the Dakotas neve to convey 
these very different ideas. Contrary to the analogy of most European 
languages, the Dakota adjective follows the noun, and the adverb pre- 
cedes the verb. 

Words nearly corresponding to more and most and very, are some- 
times used in making comparisons. But another method', quite com- 
mon, which -strikes us as eminently primitive, is that of affirming one 
thing to be good by saying that another is bad — affirming that one of 
two or more things is the longest by saying that the other is short. 

The Dakota verb is by far the most difficult part of the language ; and 
I am acquainted with nothing in other languages quite so complex. 

1. In a large clays of verbs, the manner of the action, and the instru- 
ment used in producing it are expressed by prefixes to the root. Thus, 
whether Jhe action is done by cutting with a knife or saw — by shooting 
or punching, or by the action of rain — by cutting with an axe — by striking 
with a stick, or by the action of the wind — by the foot — by the hand, as 
in pushing or rubbing — by the mouth, as in biting or talking; and finally, 
when the action is done by boring, scratching, pinching, or in any other 
way not specified, these various ideas are expressed by prefixing ba, bo, 
ka, na, pa, ya, and yu. to the same root. 

2. The Dakota verb tells whether one is fjoino; home or elsewhere — 
whether he has come home, or to a place where he does not reside — 
whether what he has is his own or another's — whether he is eating his 



* Thsro ara two classes of personal pronouns, those which are used separately, and 
such as enter into composition. 

1. Mish and miye, I ; nish, niye, thou, ish, iye, he, she, or it. Unkish and unki- 
yepi, we ; niyepi, you ; iyepi, they. Dual, unkish, an 1 unkiye, we two. In some 
ciises these are used oh ectively, but generally subjectively. 

2. Those that enter into composition are ; wa, I ; ya, thou ; un-pi, weya-pi, 
you. The third person nominative, both singular and plural, has no inseparable pro- 
noun. 

Objective — ma and mi, me ; ni, you ; un-pi, us ; ni-pi, you ; wicha, them. Ma and 
jjf, as used in neuter and passive verbs, are translated by 1" and thou. 

Possessive Pronouns — IVIi, mita, and mitawa, mine; ni, nifa, and nitawa thine; ta 
and tawa, his or hers ; unki-pi, unkita-pi, and uiikitawapi, ours ; nipi, nitapi and 
tiltawapi, yours ; ta-pi and tawapi, theirs. Dual, unkitawa. ours. The latter form, in 
each case, is used separately ; the olhers are prefixed and affixed to nouns forming th« 
possessed rather than the possessing - case. 



139 



own food or his neighbor'.;, and whether \v!nt he is making is for him* 
self or another, and all this by me ins of.prefixes. 

3. AM active transitive; verba iii th ; i) uor i I n£uag3, have forma 
conv"ipjndiiig o the middle voiee of the Greek a. id the tlithpael of the 
Hebrew, in wnich the action terminates on the actor. :: They have ulse 
forms expressing reciprocal action. 

4. Waiiy Dakota verba expres* the i 1 : i of relationship by the inser- 
tion of ki ; that is, convey the idea of doing to or lor one s own, as rela- 
tio;)-) or prop >rty. 

5 Krenu moy of action is expressed by th ) reduplication of a syllable. 

6. A few verbs have a prefix which lixes the action to the middle of 
object. 

7. The pronouns, both subjective and objective, are either prefixed to 
the verb or inserted. Here one finds the greatest difficulty in acquiring 
the Language. Many p u'sons who understand the language, and are 
supp >sed to speak it well, n evert lie! ess often make ludicrous, and some- 
tittles serious mistakes in the insertion of } ronouns into verbs. The 
first difficulty which the learner meets with, is to know the place of the 
pronoun in the verb. The next is to learn the relative position of the 
nominative and objective. And the third and greatest of all is to ac- 
quire such a facility in the use of them that they will always come in the 
right place. 

8. fue prepositions to and for are introduced into many verbs, gen- 
erally between the pronouns, some of which are changed in conse- 
quence. 

9. The causative form, answering to the Hebrew Hiphil, is made by 
affixing kiya or ya to th ; root or ground form of the verb. 

Id. /dost verbs in the language may be used in both the construct and 
absolute forms. It is sufficiently exact for the present occasion, to say 
that, generally, wa prefixed to the construct form makes ihe absolute. 
For example, yazan. to be sick . is tiie construct, and is always used 
when the body, or any particular part of it, is said to be sick — as pa 
mayaz in, my head is sick. Hut wamayazan is, simply and abstract- 
edly, 1 am sick. These absolute forms pften express the idea of cus- 
tom or habit in the agent. 

From these statements it will be p3rceived that a full paradigm of the 
Dakota veri> must comprehend a vast number of forms; and it will rea- 
dily be admitted, that to master it fully, tou t be a work of no small diffi- 
culty. It will farther be easily understood that many ideas which we 
express by considerable circumlocution, our Indian neighbors can con- 
\ey. more directly and forcibly, in a single word. 

The plural of Dakota verbs, as well as nouns, pronouns, and adjec- 
tives, is formed by affixing pi to the singular. \% hen cither the subjec- 
tive or objective pronoun is plural, the pi is required, except in the easy 
of wich i, them, used with wa, I, or ya, thou. A noun of multitude is 

* U a is b'vm sai 1 tint the D ikola language resembles the Greek. This oorre«pon 
dene, e with the mi l.lle voice any be s me evidence on that point.. Webster, in his ad- 
mir&blo .aetiouary of the English langi] ;g«, un ler the inter " a." states that the word 
father ia o.i.l G reek an.l Gothic h '? AU-i," which would seem to correspond exactly 
with Ate " of the Dtkota, (pronounced ata). 

But the mention of the Gothic wool ! seem to direct our attention to some of th© 
northern language.! of Europe, to fin i the birth place of the D «kota Perhaps one ac- 
quafote 1 vritu th s larig'i^e of J amy Lin I an 1 Fre erik i Bremer might find resem- 
blance more uuiii.'rouj than can be traced in languages farther south 



140 



often comprehended in, and represented by, singular pronouns and verbs, 
as one can readily perceive by listening to the speech of a chief. 

The use of the dual form, as in Greek, comprehending the person 
."speaking and the one spoken to. gives variety and beauty to the lan- 
guage. But notwithstanding the great variety of forms which the Da- 
kota verb assumes, bymeans ofpronouns.it is not to be disguised that, 
in some cases, it is not always plain, which is the subject, and which the; 
object", which the actor, and winch the actee. Take, for example, 
" The Chippewas have killed Dakotas" — Raratonwan Dakota wicaktipi. 
The natural place for the subject of the verb appears to be before the 
object ; but its right to that place does not seem to be so well determined, 
as that there may not be a doubt in regard to which is so used. The 
objective pronoun refers always to the objective noun. The expression 
often needs an explanation. 

The third person singular of the verb, contracted if capable of contrac- 
tion, is used as the infinitive mood ; in which case another verb imme- 
diately follows. This is undoubtedly the ground form of the verb. By 
some of the members of the Dakota mission, it is considered as the par- 
ticipial form. The conditional mood is formed by means of conjunctions. 
The imperative singular is formed by too, we, or ye, after the verb ; the 
plural by po, pe, m, or miye. Wo and po are used in commanding ; the 
others in entreating. The Dakota men command; the women entreat. 

The power of reduplication possessed by Dakota adjectives verbs, 
and adverbs, gives variety and beauty, as well as strength, to the lan- 
guage. The reduplication of an adjective denotes plurality in the noun 
preceedmg; as, washte, good, shuuka wakan washteshte. good horses. 
In numerical adjectives, it expresses ideas which could not otherwise be 
conveyed ; as, nomnom,two and two. or by twos ; wanwanchadan, a few 
times, of wanchadau, once. In adverbs it denotes frequency of action 
in regard to different objects; in verbs it expresses frequency of action 
in regard to the same thing. Baksa means to cut off. as a stick, with a 
knife or saw ; baksaksa means to cut off several times — to cut into short 
pieces. Ira means to laugh ; irara means to laugh often, laugh at. make 
fun of. In this connection I may criticise the derivation of*' Kara." the 
name given to the Falls of St. Anthony, h has been erroneously deriv- 
ed from ira, and translated "Laughing Waters." 4> Ira" itself is com- 
pounded of "I," the mouth, and "ra," to curl. "Rara" is a reduplica- 
tion of "ra," to curl; and should be translated "'Curling Waters." 

In the arrangement of predicate and subject in a sentence, the Dakota 
language is eminently primative and natural. The sentence " Give me 
bread," a Dakota transposes to "-Aguyapi maqti ye" — bread me give. — 
Such is the genius of the language, that, in translating a sentence or 
verse from the Bible, one expects to begin, not at the beginning but at 
the end. And such, too, is the common practice of their best interpreters; 
where the person who is speaking leaves off, there they usually com- 
mence and proceed backward to the beginning. In this way the con- 
nection of the sentences is more easily retained in the mind, and more 
naturally evolved. There are. however, some cases in which this meth- 
od cannot be followed. In a logical argument, if the conclusion is first 
translated, it will, in some cases, need to be repeated after the premises; 
but the therefore which connects the conclusion to the premises, very 
frequently, in Mr. Renville's translations, comes after the conclusion. — 
This method of expressing ideas, so entirely different from that to which 



141 



our minds have been accustomed, makes it difficult to learn to think in 
Dakota ; and still more difficult to think in English and express one's 
self in Dakota. 

For many years the members of the Dakota mission have been, mor* 
or less, engaged, as other duties would permit, in collecting and arrang- 
ing vocabularies, and in ascertaing and reducing to form the principles 
of the language. Their lexicons now contain more than fifteen thou- 
sand words, not including the oblique cases of nouns, and the various 
forms of verbs dependent on the introduction ot pronouns and preposi- 
tions. We do not (latter ourselves that our work, in this direction, is ac- 
complished. Doubtless there are words which we have not yet gather- 
ed, and they may be more numerous than we are aware of. Very rnan> 
of our definitions are still imperfect, and a few of them maybe wrong. — 
We have done what we could. 

A strictly phonetic method of writing the language has been employed,, 
and one, in most points, coinciding with that recommended by Dr. Pick- 
ering. Thus, for one who can make the peculiar sounds readily, learn- 
ing to read Dakota re quires but little labor. The peculiar sounds of the 
language are two guiterals, represented by the characters g and r* and 
four clicks, represented by c, q. p, t. As the q was used for no other 
purpose, it did not need the mark attached to the other characters. — 
There are at least two other slight modifications of sound which we hav« 
not generally indicated. The/* and v ofthe English alphabet have not 
been used. C and x are used with the powers of ch and sh. 

Accent in Dakota is quite important. The meaning of many words 
depends upon it; as, for instance, ma-ga, afield, and ma-ga, a goose. — 
The principle of accenting seems to be determined from the beginning ol" 
the word, not from the end. In the case of two thirds, or perhaps three 
fourths, of all the words in the language, the accent is on the second syl- 
lable from the beginning. The greater part of the remainder are ac- 
cented on the first syllable ; there are a few cases of polysyllables ac- 
cented on the penultimate. In words of four or more syllables, a secon- 
dary accent follows on the second syllable after the primary. Hence it i* 
not unfavorable to the composition of poetrv ; but, as almost all word* 
end in a vowel or nasal », rhyme can have very little variety. 

The ianguage is sometimes figurative from necessity and sometimes 
from choice, in the latter case, their figures are often "far-fetched." — 
When they ask for an ox, in soldier language, they call him a dog; and 
when a chief begs for a horse, he often does it under the figure ofmocca- 
sins. Their war songs and others seem to have but little of either the 
spirit or form of true poetry. A few words make a long song; and, v.\ 
general, their meaning is just the opposite of that naturally conveyed by 
the words. For example : naming a young man who has acted very 
bravely, killed an enemy and taken his scalp, they say, "You are a fool c 
you let the Chippewas strike you." And this is understood to be thw 
highest form of eulogy. 

in conclusion, I may say. that we cannot but regard the Dakota as a 
noble language ; not perfect indeed, but as perfect a3, in the circum- 
stances, it could be expected to be — a language, which, while in some- 
things it is very defective, in other departments, abounds in forms ex- 
pressing varieties in action; and one which, from its great flexibility, is 



*Pronouncs 1 ytu and rhk. 



142 



capable of vast improvement. But in a century more it will probably not 
be spoken. Nor is it perhaps desirable that it should continue us a liv- 
ing language. The question then is, when it is dejad — wh'sn 1 he Dakota 
race, as such, shall have p issed away, as their owli buffalo of the prai- 
rie — shall we not retain an adequ ite memorial of them '! Shall not the 
names of our rivers be the names ot their rivers ; and shall not the names 
of our towns remind us of these races that have become merged into cur 
own '/ And especially, shall we not hand down to posterity the means 
of knowing what the Dakota language was ? When Minnesota is a 
great Mate — when its inhabitants arc counted by millions, and when 
railroads and telegraph wires are the great veins and arteries of its in- 
kercommuhicatibn, rn vy the archives of tais Society show, that we, who 
now live, h ivc, in this respect both known and done our duty. 
Luc-qui-Farle Jifission, November, I860. 



PROSPECTUS FOR PUBLISHING A DAKOTA LEXICON. UN* 
DELI THE PATRONAGE Oj? Till* MaTOttlUAL SOCIETY 
OF MINNESOTA. 

The members of the Dakota Mission having been requested by various 
persons to prepare for the press a Dakota Lexicon and Grammar, have 
made arrangements for putting into the best form, for that purpose, their 
united labors. 

The Lexicon is expected to contain — 1st, Dakota and English — 2d, 
English and Dakota — 3d. a Grammar of the Dakota Language; all of 
which, when bound together, will make a book of some 700 pages, small 
octavo. 

The Dakota and English part will contain upwards of ,15 CGO words, 
not iMcluding the oblicpae cases of nouns, and the various forms of verb* 
depen lent on the introduction of pronouns and prepositions. This, 
with the Grammar, is intended chiefly lor the benefit ot such persons a* 
wish to form some acquaintance — practical and philosophical, or philo- 
logical—with 1 the Dakota dialect. 

The English and Dakota part will be prepared partly for the benefit 
of the Dakotas themselves, it is rn t expected by any one that their own 
will continue to be a spoken language. Civilization, as it passes onward, 
should encircle them with its blessings, not the least of which are 
the English language and its literature. In giving them facilities for 
acquiring a knowledge of our language, we only do our duty. — 
For the promotion of this part oi the design, it is expected that the Amer- 
ican Board will make an appropriation. It is also iioped that assistance 
will be obtained from Literary Societies, and individuals in the East, 
who feel interested in preserving adequate memorials of our Indian tribes, 
and a means of a careful comparison ot their-ianguage. 

But the citizens of Minnesota, it is expected, will feel more deeply 
interested in this publication, than those who are not brought into such 
proximity with the Dakotas. 

It is proposed to raise by subscription within the Territory. S'GCO; rne 
half to be paid when the work is ready for printing, which will be about 
the first, of May next; and the remainder on the delivery of the books fo 
subscribers. For every $£,60 subscribed, a copy of the work, neatly 



143 



and substantially bound, will be guaranteed. When all the expenses 
are met by subscription and sale, the remainder of the edition, if any, 
will be divided among the paying subscribers, according to the amount 
of their subscription. 

At the annual meeting of the Historical Society, on Monday, the 13th 
of January, instant the following persons were appointed a Committee 
to receive subscriptions, or enter the names of persons disposed to sub- 
scribe, to wit: 

Saint Paul — W. II. Forbes, C. J. Ilenniss. Mr. Baker and Mr. Le Due. 

Saint Anthony — Mr. Atwater, Ilev. Mr. Secomb and J. M. Marshall. 

Willowriver — F. P. Callin, James Muges. 

Mendota—F. B. Sibley, P. Prescott and M. McLeod. 

Stillwater — Rev. Mr. Boutvvell, Capt. Holcombe and J. S. Proctoi\ 

Point D mglass — Wm. VVoodruirand L. Hurtzell. 

Benton County — Hon. D. Olmsted and A. Aitkin. 

Pembina — C. Cavileer and N.. VV. Kittson. 

St. Croix Falls—Dr. Hoyt. 

Gnttafrn Grove — J. VV. Furber. 

The six hundred dollars proposed to be raised by subscription withi» 
tho Territory for the above work, is already subscribed, and will be paid. 
The work will be published, &c. 



A MEMOIR 

ON THE 

HISTORY AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF 
MINNESOTA. 



BY HENRY R. SCHOOLCRAFT, L. L. D. 



When France ceded Louisiana to the United States she committed 
the greatest geographical blunder in her history, excepting the cession of 
all new France, by Louis XV, conseque nt on the i all ol Quebec in 1759. 
These two events, originally stood in the way of'the United States event- 
ually becoming a great and leading power ; and their consummation was, 
as it is now seen, the very turning point of it. VV ith a foreign and non- 
cognate race, as France is. on our entire northern borders, from sea to 
sea, and the {Mississippi locked up. that great valley was as completely 
bound as Laocoon in the folds of the serpent. Fortunately, the states- 
men of that proud and luxurious court, were not wise beyond their gen- 
eration, and Bonaparte, when he completed the work, by accepting three 
millions as an equivalent for Louisiana, thought a bird in the hand, worth 
two in the bush. ''Bush," indeed! which has already given origin to a 
cluster of States, and by the dispute with Texas, a Spanish blunder, has 
brought along in its Magnificent train, California and New Mexico. Al- 
ready the Mississippi river, if we include the Ohio, has thirteen States 
upon its waters, not counting Territories, and it furnishes an outlet to 
the commerce of several more. 

" " Yet, though no rhyme, thy banks to fame prolong 

Beyond the warrior's chant, the boatman's song, 
More happy in thy fate than Ganges' tide, 
No purblind million* kneel upon thy si. e, 
Beyond the Nile — beyond the Niger blest, 
No bleeding Parke — no dying Leuyard prest ; 
Or if one fate foredoomed the Gaul* to bleed, 
Suceess o'erpaid and cancelled half the deed. 
Not in hot sands, or savage deserts lost, 
A healthful vigor blooms along thy coast, 
And ever blest above the orient train, 
No crouching serf here clanks the feudal chain. 
E'en the poor Indian, who, in Nature's pride, 
Serenely scans thy long-descending tide, 
Turns, in his thoughts, thy course 'twixt sea and see, 
Aud shouts to think, that all his tribes are free." 

Minnesota is the last legislative creation, upon its waters, and huh 
fair, at no distant period to make one of its noblest states. The area of 
territory comprised by it, is computed by Mr. Darby, at a fraction under 
200.000 square miles; and it would be ample, in mere area, for the form- 
ation of three large states, facing respectively the Mississippi, and Mis- 
souri rivers, including the rpsiduary portion of Wisconsin, some 20,000 
square miles of which, in consequence of the ordinance of 1787, cgn 

* La Salle, 



145 



never be incorporated into a state by itself, and comprehending also, the 
large urea Iving above the mouth ol the i)e (Jorbeau river, which is, in a 
measure sphaguous, or arid. For this, we may deduct 8U,000 more 
squ ire miles, which would reduce it to the compass ol two states ol 80,- 
0L0 square miles each. 

Taking the distance on the Mississippi west, from the influx of the up- 
per Iowa river, to that of the Crow Yv wig. it cannot be less than seven 
hundred geographical miles. The quality of the sod, between these 
points, reaching west indefinitely, is oi the richest kind of upland and 
prairie, and is well adapted to all the cereal gram in a, and to zea maize. 
Indeed, «he latter is raised, in great perfection, iit the valley of 'Red river 
of Lake YVinnepeg. which is IN. YV . of the source oi the iVhssissippi. In 
the settlement ot Lord Selkirk, the grain ciops are unfailing, and are 
only affected by floods, or other ca^ualities. 

In speaking of the agricuhuial advantages of the territory — and of its 
soil and climate, allusion is chiefly had, to die area south ofCrow Wing, 
above mentioned, and also to ihe region on the left bank ol ihe river, kAt- 
twetnfcandy lake, or Gefntaguiia, ftulle Luc, and ihe Kum and t\. Croix 
rivers. 

A territory, indeed, which gives origin to the Mississippi, and furnishes 
more than a thousand miles of her banks, on benight t nd left can neither 
be small nor obscure, huch is Minnesota. The first sul ject that de- 
mands attention,, in the new territory is the name, it has been frequent- 
ly asked, whether this soil and harmonious name be Indian, and if so, 
in w.iat language or idiom? Y\ e have the authoiitv of seme practical 
enqu.rers in this matter, for saying that it is acompeund Dakota or Bicux 
word, describing the characteristic bluish green water of the fct. Peters 
river. W hether this phenomenon be due to the sedimentary blue clays 
brought down from its tributaries; to leaves settled in its bed, or to thick 
■masses of Ibliago overhanging its banks, under the influence of atmos - 
pheric refraction, is uncertain. Bui the Dakotas who live on its banks, 
were eaiiy 10 notice it at its periods of summer depressioii, and have 
embodied the description in the term Minnesota. Min-ee simply,, in the 
Sioux language, signifies water. The teim for river, wahtapah, which 
the natives use as a noun- prefix, is properly dropped in adopting the 
word into a new language. 

By the Chippeu as, who live north and east of the Dakotas, this river 
is called Oskibugi Seepi, or the Young leal' river in affusion to its early 
foliage, or premature time of putting out leaves; while the more boreal 
regions occupied by them are still standing in their w.ntry leaflessness — 
Compared, indeed, to the shores of Lake Superior, the valley of the St. 
Peters is an Italy. But to the Saxon and Norman emigrant, who seek 
the country Ibr its capacities of industrial employment it has a higher 
value. The whole of southern and central Minnesota, is eminently suited 
to the zea maize and the entire family of the cereals. '1 here is no part 
of the great west, better adapted to wheat, com and the leading staples 
of northern agriculture. The £t. Peters has long been noted. among > 
travellers for its precocious and blooming gardens, aid it is found that 
the sylvan basin of Lake Pepin, and the valleys of t;.e Ft. Croix, the 
Issati. or Rum river, with the iSt. Francis. Carneille, Snukis. and higher 
tributaries areequally rich in their floral character and power ofvrgtta- 
tion. Profitable agriculture must extend, township by township, to the 
li s 10 



146 



De Corbeau; and it must be borne in mind, that indisfa corn which can- 
not be cultivated at Sault Ste Marie, in latitude 46° 30', is raised by tins 
Indians annually, and ripens early in August, at the very sources of the 
Mississippi and at Red Lake, north of them. The latter point is but a 
few seconds south of north latitude 49°. 

Meteorological observations; made at Forts Spelling and Atkinson, for 
many years, indicate a highly favorable climate; at the latter post, the 
maximum heat, for the months of May, June. July and August. 1843, 
was 82°, 88°, 84°, 81°, respectively; the mean temperature, during the 
same months, being, in their order, 63°, 65°, 71°, G2°, and the minimum 
36°, 47°, 51°, 51 °. Thunder showers are frequent in those latitudes, 
an i even on the higher tributaries of the Mississippi. The amount of 
free electricity is thought to produce local currents which mitigate the 
sultriest days. Thirty seven inches of rain fell at Fort Atkinson in 
1843. 

By observations made at Sandy lake in July, 1820, (vide Schoolcraft's 
Nar. Jour.. Pub. Ex. p. 2G8.) the maximum heat at that high point is 
shown to be 90°, and the mean temperature between the 17th and 24th 
of the month 73 s , which is a little higher than the entire monthly aver- 
age heat in 1848 at Fort Atkinson, lying some four hundred miles, atmos- 
pherically, south. Probably the entire month would sink the northern 
average a couple of degrees, showing a remarkable equality of summer 
temperature over a very wide range. 

Volney appears to have been the first observer to notice the prevalence 
of a valley current, from the tropical latitudes up the Mississippi- — a re- 
mark in which he is sustained, at later dates, by Dr. Drake and Dr. 
Hildreth. it is evident, from the scanty materials we possess, that this 
gulf current does not spend its force until it has well nigh reached the 
.southern terminus of the Itasca summit. It is certain that the extreme 
upper Mississippi escapes those icy winds from Hudson's and Baffin's 
bays, which are often felt, during the spring months, in northern Mich- 
igan and northern Wisconsion. The same latitudes which cross the lake 
country, .give a milder climate in the valley of the upper Mississippi. — 
One of the causes of this phenomenon has probably been noticed above. 
Others will doubtless be found by a scientific scrutiny of its meteorol- 
ogy. Mr. Espy will enlighten us. 

Longevit}' must characterize a country without fevers or congestions. 
Surgeons, who have been stationed at the military posts of Minnesota and 
the upper Mississippi, generally give a very favorable view ot its diseases 
and their diagnosis, under the effects of the climate. Malignant fevers 
seldom or never originate, in these longitudes, north of latitude 44°. — 
It is also well known that the cholera, which in a single instance, in 
1832. was carried by a steamboat as high as latidude 46°, did not 
spread at that sanitary point, namely, Michilimackinac, but was 
confined south of the general latitude of 43 s to 44°, which is according 
to the late Dr. Forrey, very nearly the northern isothermal line. Both 
Green Bay on the east and Prairie duChien on the west, of Wisconsin, 
escaped its ravages. So far, however, as fevers and malignant diseases- 
have been locally compared, there is a decided tendency to pass the lake 
latitudes in the Mississippi valley. 

Both banks of the Mississippi, within the boundaries of Minnesota, are 
quite elevated. This elevation is rocky and often precipitous, at tlr> 
river's brink, as high as St. Anthony's Falls. Above that point, which is* 



147 



according to Nicollet, in latitude 44 58' 40", a succession of elevated 
plains, with forests of the drift stratum, come in. and characterize both 
banks, a* far up as Sandy lake, and with intermissions, quite to the falls of 
Fuckaguma. The consequence of this elevation is, that its waters, which 
reveul themselves abundantly in pure spring**, lakes, and streams, fiovv 
into the Mississippi with rapid currents and cascades, presenting 
numerous seats for hydraulic works. At these works the pine for- 
ests of Minnesota may be readily converted into lumber, to supply the 
central and lower portions of the Mississippi. The falls of the St. Croix, 
of the Chippewa, and other tributary streams, have already been occu- 
pied, in part with such works. At the falls of St. Anthony; where the 
Mississippi drops sixteen and a half feet perpendicular, * with strong 
rapids above and below; its power may be thrown, by a series ef mill 
canals, upon almost any amount of machinery. This point, which is 
distant nine hundred miles above St. Louis, and two thousand and two 
hundred miles from the Gulf, is the true head cf steamboat navigation, 
and must become an important manufacturing city and point of tran- 
shipment. In a future state of the country, steamboats of moderate ton- 
nage may be built above the falls to run, during the freshets, as high as 
Comtaguma, or Sandy lake, and Puokagutna. They may also ascend 
the i)e Corheau to the mouth of Leaf river. 

The topography and general geography of Minnesota cannot be well 
understood without giving full prominence to the character, course, and 
origin of the Mississippi. 

Geologically considered, the Mississippi river originates in the erratic 
block -groupo of drift stratum of the north, in longitude 18° west of 
Washington, and north latitude 47° 13' 35', agreeably to Mr. 
Nicollet. This stratum developes itself in a prominent range of sand 
hills, once perhaps naked ocean dunes, which throw out copious springs 
of the purest water, on all sides. These infant sources of the *• father of 
rivers," first gather themselves together in a handsome lake, called itas- 
oa, or La Biche, of some five miles in length, whose shores are surround- 
ed with deciduous trees — pines being in sight on the neighboring ridges, 
and having a beautiful island near its centre, rich with the foliage of the 
elm, wild cherry, soft maple, and other northern species. From this 
lake the Mississippi sets out on his wonderful course of more than 3.000 
miles to the gulf, by an outlet sixteen feet wide, with a depth of fourteen 
inches — making a body of pure crystal water, gliding rapidly ovtr its 
sandy and pebbly bed, in which the traveller, as he shoots along in his 
canoe, can see the broken white and pearly valves of the unio and other 
fresh water shells of the lake scattered in its bed. 

Thus much topographically. This great northern drift stratum, which 
constitutes the height of land, rests on a broad range of the crystaline or 
primary rocks, which cross the continent, between latitudes about 4 4° 
to 50°, linking together the mountain group of the Labrador and Hud- 
son's bays coasts with the Rocky mountains. To these broad ranges and 
mountain-outbreaks as they are developed, west of James' bay and Berth 
of Lake Superior, Bouchette, the geographer of Canada, has applied the 
name of Cabotian mountains; in allusion to the true discoverer of North 
America. 

Agreeably to this theory, the St. Louis river, which falls into the head 



148 



of Lake Superior, presenting a series ofmagnificent views and cataracts, 
passes transversely through the Cabotian chain, while the Rainy lake, 
and the lake of the Woods, lie north ot it. This range of transverse 
rocks, which, with all its diluvial and drift covering, does not rise over 
l,CuO feet above the ocean, may be said, by its "rocky roots," to contin- 
ue west from ihc itasca highlands, and to divide the waters of the L pper 
Missouri from those of the Suskatcluwine and Assinabo;n valleva of 
Red river and Lake VVinnepec. The natural line of elevations denotes 
this. It is, in fine, the transverse Wasserochied, between the Hudson's 
bay and the St. Lawrence waters, and those of the Gulf of Mexico. 

it is imposs.ble to visit this remote summit, to winch the French 
apply the term Hauteur des Terres, and examine its oceanic dunes, 
grav.. 1 beds, s\m\ plains, and other characteristic features, without sup- 
posing the present condition of its surface to be the result of oceanic cur- 
rents, however produced, which at a very ancient period of the glube'y 
history, poured their waters over these heights, surcharged with the ruins 
of broken strata and disrupted formations which once spread, ever the 
area north of them.* Whether ice had any influence in this distribution, 
let iVir. Agassiz decide. We observe, amidst the heavy beds of commin- 
uted sandstones and slates, and primary rocks from remote positions, 
very widespread evidences of trap and greenstones, granwaches and 
amygdaloids, which tell of the prostration cf volcanic foimations with all 
their peculiar imbedded minerals and veinstones. Of these latter, the 
harder varieties of the quartz family, with zoned agates, and less abun- 
dantly, ehalcedoniecs and cornelians, are found, both in the dry diitt, at 
the highest elevations, and about the shores of lakes and streams. These 
masses have been carried, by fluviatile action, down the Mississippi val- 
ley, to great distances, suffering more and more from the force of attri- 
tion. 'I hey are often picked up very well characterized, on the chorea 
of Lake Pepin, i have traced them as low as St. Louis and Hurculane- 
um.f 

It is a peculiar feature of the Itasca summit and its various steppes, 
that it has a subsoil or deposite of an aluminous or impervious character, 
resting below the various sand ; plains, loams, and loose caibcnscccus and 
lacustrine beds. This appears to be the true cause of the reteniion, at 
those heights, of a- vast body of water, in the shape of lakes which are 
of every imaginable size, from half a mile to thirty miles in lei gth. It 
will not be too -much, perhaps, to say, that ten thousand of these \tki s ex- 
ist within our borders, -.north of latitude 44°. These lakes in the drift 
stratum, so r( maskable for their number, consist of transparent, nest of- 
ten very pure water, the temperature of which is generally 8° to lb c be- 
low that of the atmosphere, (vide Schoolcraft's nar jour. pub. Lx. cf 
1820, p. 168 &e.) f l hey are supposed, in several districts, to have a **ub> 
terraneous communication with each other, whereby their purity and 
liveliness is preserved, without visible outlets. The water that sustains 
such a system of lakes and rivers is manifestly, the result of the con- 
densed vapors* of the ocean, which have been wafted from warmer lati- 
tudes, and condensed on these broad eminences. 

The lakes of the sub mountain region- of Minnesota may all be consid- 
ered as falling under two classes, those with clean sandy shores, and a 

* Geological report of the Expm. of 1880, War ofljco, Wfisfoisgton. 
t View of the Lead Miaea Missouri 1819. 



149 



considerable depth, and those whose margins consist of a sphagnous 
character, and abound in the zazania palustris, or wild rice and are 
comparatively shallow. The lormer yield various species ol fish. Tl\e 
latter serve not only as a store house of grain tor the natives, who gather 
it in August and September, but they invite myriads ot water fowl into 
the region, and thus prove a double resource to them. It is constantly 
affirmed, that fish are tak: n in lakes which have no visible outlet. Some 
of the larger open lakes connected with die Mississippi, yield even the 
white fish, which is so celebrated in the upper lakes — while in no case 
has fnh of this species ever been found in the Mississippi itself. 

For the country around the sources of the Mississippi, extend- 
ing to the Like of the Woods and the old Grand Portage of Lake Su- 
perior, there should ue deducted from the area of profitable agriculture 
about 6J, 033 squire miles. Some portion of this, as the angle west of 
Lake Superior, extending to the Lake of the Woods, and the source of 
the ^t. Louis river, and the Sandy lake summit, is nearly all naked rock, 
of l he primitive and volcanic kinds, and is entirely valueless for the pur- 
poses of agriculture. Another portion of it, reaching across the actual 
head waters of the Mississippi to the high ground of the Oiter tail lake, 
and Itasca summit, has a large proportion of arid sand hills and plains, 
and an almost illimitable number ol' lakes and Muskergs* The propor- 
tion of r ertile land in this area, is rendered less valuable than it otherwise 
would be. from its isolation by these waters and barrens, and the imprac- 
ticability of connectingthem, byroads. West of the Hauteur des Terres, 
the lands are fertile, consisting of woods and prairies, are easily travers- 
ed, and are capable of constituting valuable agricultural settlements. — 
Probably three degrees of latitude, south of 49° may be considered the 
extent of this tract. 

This region has been considered as a central point for the Fur trade. 
It has been noted from the first settlement of Canada, as abounding in 
the sin ill furred animals, whose skins are valuable in commerce. Its 
sources of wealth, to the native tribes, have been in the articles received 
in exch inge for their skins. It has at the same tim \ had another sin- 
gular advantage from the abundance of the native grain called m mom >n or 
rice, by the Indians, which it spontaneously yields. Its lakes abound 
with water-fowl and fish. Its forrests and valleps yield a suiliciency of 
the acer sacherinum, to enable the nations to make maple sugar; and if 
the territory of Hudson's bay were ceded to the United States, it would 
form a suitable area for an Indian colony. 

Besides the beaver, otter, mink, muskrat, fisher, and martin, whose 
furs are valuable, it yields many of the larger quadrupeds. There are 
some portions of it. where that remarkable animal still exists, which the 
Indian call moz, and the Americans moose, the largest of the deer species. 
This large animal, which has nearly the strength of the horse, and re- 
sembles it in height, is very wary, and quick of hearing. The least noise 
disturbs it, and the Inuians hunt it, with great care. Its flesh is 
much esteemcd«jpy them. Besides the elk, red deer, and common 
black bear, its western skirts, on the Red river plains, yield the grizzly 
bear — the lion of the region, if strength is the point at issue. To kill this 
animal, is an object of prime boasting, with the natives and hunters. + 



* Geological Report, 1820. 

t Lecture on the natural History of Michigan, 1831. 



150 



Portions of the country yield the carriboo, which is an American 
species of the reindeer — the Cervux Americanus. This beautiful and 
fleet animal, which has a very marked split hoof, is providjd with a Lot, 
that enables it to spread it over a considerable surface, at every step, 
which enables it to walk on the surface of the deepest snows. It subsists 
during the winter season, on mosses. Its flesh is a most delicious and 
delicate venison, and its skin is dressed, by the Indian females, for their 
finest garments. 

It is noi true, as has been supposed, that the glutton, or hyena of Eu- 
rope, exists on the sources of the Mississippi. The only species of this 
family, found by the hunters, is the wolverine — a vicious animal, which 
will dig up caches of provisions, and commit various depredations*. 

To the natusalist, the region is deeply interesting; but an enumeration 
of its various productions, would require more time and space than are 
at our command. 

To trace the Mississippi to its source, amidst this maze of pseudo-alp- 
ine hills, and lacustrine steppes, spreading over half the continent, was 
not, indeed, a light task. .But it was hardly to be anticipated that it 
should have remained undiscovered for so long a period after iis moulh had 
been well known ; after its central portions had been often described ; 
and even after its channel had been followed up its spreading maze for 
six or seven hundred miles above St. Anthony's Falls. 

It is curious to look into this problem. It is now known, sin,ce the 
publication of the collections of Ternoux Campans at Paris, that the 
Spanish under Narvaez, discovered the mouth of the Mississippi in 
coasting the Gulf shore in boats in the autumn of 1527. just six years 
after the final conquest of Mexico. The Apalachites had told them of a 
great river falling into the northern side of the gulf; but they were slow 
to explore it. At length the rage for conquest of a captain who had fol- 
lowed the standard of Pizarro, led to its exploration. The ill-fated ex- 
pedition of De Soto, and his discovery of this stream in 1541, near the 
35° of north latitude, are well known. But it was the only attempt to 
explore it made by Spain. For more than a century after De Soto's 
failure, the Mississippi rolled its immense volume to the ocean as a hid- , 
den stream. The French, who began to settle Canada in 1603, were 
long confined to the lower parts of jhe St. Lawrence, both by their inhe- 
rent weakness and the enmity of the Iroquois. The overthrow of the 
Erie confederacy by the latter in 1653. only served to cramp the French 
enterprise, and exposed them more fully to the ire and scrutiny of this 
rising power- Even thirty years later in their history, the French tra- 
ding posts still rested at Sault Ste Marie, St. Ignace, St. Joseph's, and 
Michilimackinac. 

In 1668 Claude Aloez established a mission near the head of Lake 
Superior. Five years later, namely in 1673, P. Marquette and M. Johet 
entered the Mississippi by the Wisconsin, and explored it downwards to 
the Illinois. About this period a great mindforits energy and the mag- 
nificence of its 1 plans arose in France, in the person of Etobert de la Salle, 
who, if his life had been spared, would have founded a great French 
empire in the West. It is probable that the ardor of the missionary re- 
ports first drew his attention to North America ; but, whatever was the 
cause, he was a man far in advance of his age. 



• Lsctura ou the Natural history of Michigan, 1831. 



151 



Hennepin, who came over with him during his first visit in 1673, ap- 
pears to have been the first traveler who saw the Mississippi above the 
Wisconsin. He left Fort Crovccceur, which had been erected by La 
Salle on the Illinois, with a couple of men in a canoe, on a missionary 
excursion in 1630. After reaching the Mississippi, at. the mouth of the 
Illinois, and exploring its channel for some distance below, (how far is 
apocryphal,) he was taken prisoner by the Nodowessics, a name then 
in vogue for the Dakotas or ftioux, and carried into their country among 
the Issafi, above St. Anthony's Falls. This name of Issati, after having 
puzzled inquirers, and cast discredit on Hennepin's narrative of his cap- 
tivity for more than a century and a half, has recently been found by 
Dr. Williamson to be the name of the ancient Sioux residence of Mille 
Lac. tsantamde means Knife lake, and from this ancient seat of the 
Sioux, their Missouti brethren call all ;he Mississippi Sioux Isanyate. 
We are indebted to Hennepin for t ho names he bestowed on St. Antho- 
ny's Falls and the river St. Francis, which last was the highest point 
reached by him. 

The actual discovery of the upper Mississippi rested here about eigh- 
ty-three years. La Honton, who amused the world with a su jposlt ti )us 
voyage up its channel to " Riviere La Longue," never saw it, and dis- 
covered nothing. Quebec fell in 1759, and the cession of all new France 
to the British crown followed in three years. In 1766, three years after 
the cession. Carver visited the region of St. Peters and the falls of St. 
Anthony, with enlarged* views of discovery; although admitting the ut- 
most point claimed by him. he did not ascend above the mouth of the St. 
Francis. He publisned in London a vague map of the sources of the Mis- 
sissippi, and appears to have been the first traveler who used the word 
Oregon. It was his notion that the Oregon, now Columbia river, origi- 
nated on a continental summit near the source of the Mississippi, but 
his expedition was a failure ; and, alter crossing the Atlantic, he appeal- 
ed to ministers in London, in vain, to furnish him means for its further 
prosecution. The booksellers published his journal to meet his necessi- 
ties, and employed hacks to fill up the appendix. This was chiefly done 
by consulting the French authors. 

No further attempt to explore its source was made till after the acqui- 
siiion of Louisiana, a period of thirty-nine years. In 1805 Mr. Jefiersou 
determined to get some more definite ideas than were then common, of 
the extent of the newly acquired country, and set on foot the celebrated 
expeditions of Lewis and Clarke, and of Lieut. Pike. 

Pike did his work like another Ledyard. Leaving St. Louis in 1805, 
he pushed his way in boats two hundred and thirty-three miles as esti- 
mated, and over-estimated, by him. above St. Anthony's Falls to Pine 
creek, an eligible point for encampment] south of Crow Wing, or Des 
Corbeau river, which he reached on the 15th October, where the ice and 
snow arrested him. He built a block house, encamped his men, and 
left his heavy baggage at this point, lie then went forward on snow- 
shoes, with hand-sleds, dragged by men, to Sandy lake and Leech lake, 
and finally, from the latter, with a well-equipped dog train, to the sub- 
trading p .st of the north-west Company at upper Red Cedar lake. This 
was the terminus of his journey, which he reached on the 12th of Febru- 
ary, 1806. The whole country was then covered with a garb of ice and 
snow, which forbid further search. 



152 



The error of Pike's expedition was his starting too late in the season ; 
but he was a good woodsman and hunter, and not to be disheartened by 
slight obstacles. The British North West Trading Company then held 
the cou itry, and having carried on trade with the Indians illegally, iheir 
fur* and peltries were justly subject to seizure. This put them on their 
b jsit behavior with Pike, to whom they afforded every fuciiity of passing 
from post to post. Tiny also furnished lum rude maps and information, 
of the country, which enabled him. on his return, with his own notes and 
journ d to plat the map that accompanies his Expedition." Agreeably 
to these notes, g altered in the winter, and without personal observation, 
he places the source of the Mississippi in Turtle lake — a common error 
of the traders going to Red river, who troubled themselves no further 
with its exploration thin it suited the purposes of their trade. Nor does 
it appear th it even down to the present day. they ever had a trading 
post, on the miin stream above upper Lac Cedre Rouge. 

Su eli were the sources of the Mississippi as depicted by Pike. The 
information embraced in his map and journal was an immense advance 
on any that had before been known ; nor was the subject again stirred 
till some years after the close of the vv ir of 1812. That war opened new 
views to pioneer enterprise, and population began to press in every di- 
rection. Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri were admitted into ihe Union 
in rapid succession, and it became an object with the Government to 
push its line of t'ovu and frontier defences, so as to protect from Indian 
agression the outer and expanding line of settlements. In 1818 Mr. 
Calhoun, who was then Secreta y of War, authorized a series of semi- 
military and scientific explorations in the West. Major Long set out for 
the Yellow Stone. 

I was then in Missouri, having the previous season, explored the ge- 
ology and mineralogy of the mine country.* 

Mr. Calhoun's plan was to throw a military cordon around the Far 
West settlements, and thus to secure them against Indian aggression. 
He was. in advance of his time. looking Far West and North U est. 

A plan for investigating the resources and Indian population of the 
North West, and for tracing the Mississippi to its source, was prepared 
by, and confided to. the executive of Michigan. He was furnished with 
a small escort under Lieut. Mackey, now Lieut. Colonel Mac-key and 
Capt. r3. Douglass. U. S. Engineer, and having invited a corps of scien- 
tific observers, set out from Detroit in May, 1820. passing to the head 
waters of the Mississippi by the way of Lake Superior and the river St. 
Louis. He first struck its waters at Sandy lake, being some two hun- 
dred and fifty miles (by water) above the point where Pike had built his 
block house in 1805. Here he encamped his soldiers and deposited his 
heavy baggage, and proc eded to trace up the river in two light canoes. 
He followed it, by its windings and savannas, lo upper Bed Cedar lake — a 
large and handsome sheet of water, which geographers have since called 
Cassina or Cass lake, in allusion to his visit. W hen he reached the 
inlet of Turtle river, on its north shore, he found the state of the waters 
unfavorable to go higher. This lake. Which Nicollet lays down in north 
latitude 47° 25 23 . was the terminus of this expedition, which return- 
ed by St. Anthony's Falls &c, to the lakes. 
Capt. D. B. Douglass (lately deceased as one of the professors of Ge- 



* Views of the Mines, 1819. 



153 



"neva College) carefully noted its topography, but never published his 
map. On concluding the expedition. Governor Cass addressed a mi moir 
to liie Secretary of vy ar, recommending tiie exploration ol lUe St. liters 
river and other sections of country. Thu became the cause of the ex- 
pedition up that stream, conducted in 1823 by Major S. Long U. S. A. 

By this important expedition, ofvghich my account. publi»u.:d early in 
1321. gives a n irrative, the first outlines of the geology ami natural his- 
tory of the North- West are giv\-n. The channel of the Mississippi had 
been critically surveyed and traced for some eight hundred miles above 
Prairie du Caieu.and our knowledge of its general geography and char- 
acter was greatly advanced. None of our earlier expeditions tocxplore 
the West had indeed excited a higher degree of interest in the public 
mind. It was the first of the modern series of public scientific explora- 
tions. Sir Humphrey Davy and Maj >r Runnel commended it. 

In 1 32 J Major Long executed part of the discovery, which had been 
suggested by Gov. Cass, lie traced the St. Peters to its. source, and ex- 
tended his explorations to Lake Winn peg. and thence homeward by the 
Lake of the Woo ls and the Rainy lakes, and through Lake Superior. 
While he was at Pembina, or thereabouts, a Mr. Beltrami who had ac 
compmied him from St. Peters, fell out with the party, or th<* party with 
him, and took his way back by the Turtle river, the old route of the fur 
trade, to the upper Mississippi. When th;s person Reached New Or- 
leans, he published a small volume claiming the discovery of the Missis- 
sippi in Turtle lake. 

It is a peculiar feature in the history of the Mississippi, t'i at this stream 
has been discovered in sec'i.ons, at long intervals apart. Spread over so 
many degrees of latitude, and m ide up of so many and such magnifi- 
cent tributaries, it has long eluded the explorer. Neith t the expedi- 
tions of loJ5 nor of 1 82 J had fixed its actu i\ source above the upper 
Red Ce 1 ir lake. Tins point, having been the historiographer and geol- 
ogist of the last expedition, I determined to ascertain. In 1832, the 
Government required my services in that quarter, in the capacity of su- 
perintendent of Indian affairs ; and having furnished me the necessary 
means tor exploring the remotest part of the Indian territory. 

An expedition for this purpose was orgmized at St. Mary's at the foot 
of Lake Superior, early in the season. The prime object of the expedi- 
tion wis to terminate, if possible, the existing hostility between the Sioux 
and Chippewas. The Sacs and Foxes were on the eve of the sanguin- 
ary war which broke out that year. It was hoped by the Secretary of 
War, to arrest it. A canoe elege with an experienced set of vovageurs, 
carried the U. S. flag. Lieut. Allen, U. S. A., with a small detachment 
of infantry soldiers accompanied me. { had engaged the late Dr. Hough- 
ton, an experienced botanist and geologist, to attend me for the purpose 
of vaccinating the Indians, and invited Rev. Mr. Boutwell to accompany 
me. These, with Mr. G >orge Johnston, as interpreter, and a number of 
Indian guides, hunters, &c, in all thirty men. completed my party. It 
was organized on strictly temperance principles. A certain object was 
to bo accomplished in a given time. Discoveries were contingent. We 
pushed early and late. It was a time of gr^at excitement among the In- 
dians. They had combined, for the last time it is believed, to battle for 
their country east ol the Mississippi. 

It was the year of the war under Black Hawk. Eleven tribes had, as 
I found, confederated in this war, and agreed to stand by the Sauk chief ; 



154 



but most of them flinched. We passed Fond du Lac and Sandy Lake, 
where the width of the Mississippi was measured, and the falls of Puck- 
agama, in good time, and reached Cass Lake, the ultimate point of the 
prior explorations of 1820, twelve days earlier in July, than the last ex- 
pedition. This was sufficient, and insured the object. 1 encamped on 
the large island, which by a combination of the names, or fragments of 
names, of the three prior explorers, was called Colcaspi, the Grand is- 
land of the French. To this point I was accompanied by the military 
oseoit. under Lt. Allen, who were completely knocked up, and by all the 
heavy baggage and stores. Here I determined to encamp, and leave all 
the disabled and extra men, and the whole military escort, except its 
commander, and organize a light expedition to go to its source. A 
week's time would be sufficent. The water was found high, and the In- 
dians reported such a journey practicable. Ozawindib. or the Yellow 
Head, the principal chief of the lake, agreed to serve as guide. Five 
small hunting canoes, of two fathoms length, were provided, so that each 
of the gentlemen of the party, including Lt. Allen, might have one. — 
Such a canoe would hold one sitter, and a man in the bow and stern. — 
I led the way, at four o'clock the morning after our arrival, earning the 
camping apparatus, extra instruments, and a flog. On reaching i he head 
of this lake, the Mississippi has a sti iking bend, and winds about. 1 his 
was avoided, in part, by a portage. On reaching the river agyin. it soon 
displayed two islands. A short distance above the last, which the In- 
dians call Tascodiac, rapids commence. The men had frequently to 
wade. This part of the route was tedious, and the elevation consider- 
able. At length, when we had gone about forty miles and reached the 
first summit, the viata suddenly opened into a large and beautiful clear 
lake, with pebbly shores, and a rich foliage. This lake, which is seme 
twelve miles long, the Indians called Pa-mid-ji-gum-aug. or the Cross- 
water. It lies transversely to the path. The river merely passes through 
one end. It lies on a summit. This is the most northerly point of the 
^Mississippi , and is in latitude 47°. From this, the river is pursued near- 
ly due south. Less than a mile above this lake, we eniered another 
lake, of smaller size, which I -called Washington li ving's lake. About 
four or five miles above this, the Mississippi has its ultimate forks — the 
right being apparently the largest. Ozawindib recommended the left, 
which 1 named Plantagenet. It soon expanded at various distances, in- 
to two lakes, to which I gave the names respectively of Marquette and 
La Salle. Late in 'the day, we entered a third and comparatively large 
lake, known to the Indians as Kubba kunna, or the Camp in the Path. 

At the head of the latter, in a dense forest of evergreens, we encamp- 
ed. The next day we trailed through natural meadows, through which 
the river winds. It receives in this distance the Nai-wa, a tributary from 
the west. Soon af.er passing this, we came to rapids and then falls. To 
avoid the latter, which the party called Schoolcraft's falls, we made a 
portage, from the foot of a hill of sand across an elevated peninsular of 
gravel and boulders, and encamped at the spot where we again struck 
the river. In the morning we were impeded by a fog. We were now 
in a region of Alpine plants. Heavy moss hung from the trees. The 
pines were small, and chiefly of -the species of grey pine, or barkoiana, 
while cedar and spruce were abundant. The margin of the stream has 
clumps of a kind of grey willow. Pond lilies appear, and we soon en- 
tered and passed through a lake, which the Indiana call As-so-wa. or 



155 



\ 



Perch lake. We went but little beyond. There was an inlet into which 
wc pushed. We soon grounded, and the guide told us to debark. We 
were in fact at the head of* this branch, and a portage was to bo made, 
across high grounds, to the head of the other ibrk, or main Mississippi. 

Whiic preparations for this were making, we partook of a meal. We 
had reached a dry elevation. liere ihe five canoes and appropriate 
baggage was brought, and each man assigned his load. \\ hen all was 
ready, OzawinJib, throwing his canoe over his shoulder, led the way. — 
It was a most intricate and fatiguing paih. Fallen logs, moss, brush, 
everything, in short, that could impede a traveller, occurred. Wo had 
about fcix mile-s before us. Wc travelled it, by what the French call 
pauses. A pause is a place of putting down the burden and resting. — 
The Indians have a term of similar meaning. At one spot wo walked 
through a pond, to avoid the thick brnmblc. Beyond this, wo were evi- 
dently ascending. Wc entered on a hilly pine tract. Our old acquain- 
tance, the pin us resinosa, soon began to appear. Our pace increased. 
We glided through opposing thickets with an cxhiliration of spirits, aris- 
ing from the thought, that we were near the goal of our hopes and toils. 
Presently, as we reached the brow of a ridge, the bright glesms of a lake 
burst on our vision. It was Itasca lake, it lay in tranquility and beauty 
below us. We were soon upon its margin, and when all the party came 
up, we put our five small canoes into its crystal waters and embarked. — 
Other men may have achieved other triumphs. Niagara was doubtless 
hailed with triumph when first seen by the French. The mouth of the 
Mississippi was pointed out, in pride, byNarvaez; and its channel by 
De Soto s party; but ours was a pleasure, heightened by the toil of 
reaching the actud source of a stream as celebrated as the Mississippi. 
It was a calm arid bright day. The novelty of the scene, kept every eye 
upon the stretch. We saw the red deer drinking in the margin. The 
wild duck often flew up before us. Sometimes the French and Indians 
suspended their paddles to gaze. The whole party were reflected in th<; 
water. We encamped upon an island. In this passage, we saw the 
pines in the distance crowning the enclosing hills. On the island, the 
shells of the tortoise, and bones offish, were scattered about ; also some 
bivalve fresh water shells. There were slms and cherry trees. I direct- 
ed the men to cut down several trees, and to peel and plant a tall spruca 
in the midst, and to elevate a flag. 

This was on the 13th of July, 1832 — being 305 years after the discov- 
ery of its mouth by iNarvaez, and 219 after the actual discovery of its in- 
terior channel by De Soto. An account of this expedition was publish- 
ed at New York in 1834. By this account, it is 3,106 miles from the 
Gulf of Mexico. Mr. J. J. Nicollet visited this lake, four years after- 
wards, and took observations, by which he determined its latitude, at the 
island, to be 47 3 13' 35", and its height above the ocean at 1575 feet. — 
The accompanying sketch of it is copied from a drawing of Ozawindib. 

Itasca lake is about five miles long; it is made up of pure springs, 
gushing from the hills. We found the outlet quite a river, with a syvilt 
current. We were two days and nights in the descent of it. There is 
u. cascade, a few miles below the lake, called Ka-bi ka. which we ran. — 
"We found it every way, ttye largest branch, and about one third longer 
than the other, or Plantagenian fork. It receives the Pin-id-di-win, ant l 
.some other tributaries, it lies in the territories of the Muk-und-wa e i- 
Pillager Chippewas. 



t 



156 

The Mississippi, whose origin and progress of discovery have now 
been examined, runs through the Minnesota Territory, dividing it into 
vary unequal parts. 

Both banks are, in their greatest extent, in the occupancy of the Indian 
tribes. The true policy to be pursued with regard to tht in, is to extin- 
guish the Indian title to such portion of it as is demanded for settlement, 
on just and liberal principles — to clear it of its Indian population, at the 
earliest possible moment; and to provide, at the same time, for the re- 
moval of the tribes to a separate territory, where they may, agreeably to 
our system, enjoy their own laws, and advance in agriculture, art3, and 
education. This policy has, it is feared, been violated by the transfer of 
the Winnebagoes from the neutral ground, in Iowa, to the west banks of 
the Mississippi, between the VVatab and the Des Corbeau rivers. They 
could not remain in Iowa, but they cannot permanently prosper in Min- 
nesota. This shoving of a tribe from State to State, is merely putting 
offthe evil day. The Indian Office, which acted on this subject j-rior to 
4th March, 1849, was undoubtedly misled. The Chippewas sold this 
fine tract without ever having occupied it, except as hunting grounds. — 
It was a portion of the wide space of country over which that widely 
spread tribe roved, and went to war against the Sioux. It was awarded 
u> them in the adjustment of their boundaries, at the treaty of Prairie du 
Chien,in 1825; but they never had a village upon it; the consc quence 
was, that they readily parted with it, in 1838. But this tribe, who ad- 
hered tenaciously to their lands east of the Mississippi, and above the 
line of the Des Corbeau, could not forsee that in a very few years their 
enemies, the Sioux, must retire west from the whole line of the Mississip- 
pi, and give place to the white population. 

There can be no doubt that this valuable tract of country so acquired, 
will in a few years be occupied by our people, up to the Des Corbeau or 
Crow Wing river. Fort Gaines, which protects it, is but six miles below the 
latter, on the west bank. Its occupation by an Indian tribe would have 
been the less excusable if we could flatter ourselves that the Department 
had not been misled by persons who had no higher view than to bring the 
Winnebagoes from the neutral ground in Iowa, where they were un- 
doubtedly deteriorating and becoming poor subjects of profitable com- 
merce, into a new country, where they must, for a time, recruit in their 
affairs ; where, in the mean time, they would serve as a barrier between 
the Sioux and Chippewas: and where, at least, the expenses of one trad- 
ing house, instead of two, would serve them and the Chippewas together. 
But how are the Winnebagoes permanently to flourish on lands where 
large game is scarce, where they will seen be within the jurisdiction of 
a State, and where they cannot permanently remain? 

Allusions have been made to the war between the Sioux and Chippe- 
was. These two warlike and leading tribes occupy nearly the entire 
area of Minnesota, east and west. They are hostile races, and are, in 
every respect, antagonistical. The one is a prairie, the other a forest 
tribe. The languages, and, to a great extent, the manners and customs, 
are diverse. They have been at variance, time out of mind. To keep 
them at peace, and to prevent our citizens from suffering the loss of life 
and property, in consequence of their hostilities, has been a prime ob- 
ject of our national policy. In this, but little can be done, without the 
strong arm of military power. Disturbing causes are now in operation ^ 
which must, in a few years, be severely felt. Such is the Winnebago 



157 



colony — the bois brule question, the failure of game, but above all, the 
call for new cessions of land. The great Dakota vzce, barbarians in 
manners, and intent on hunting alone, must soon leave the hanks of the 
Mississippi ; they will, if they lollow the example of other Indian nations, 
turn and light first. And the surest guarantee of preserving peace oa 
the frontiers, will be to plant strong and efficient garrisons on the wes< 
and north west boundaries of the country. It is essential, at all times, to 
watch the intercourse — to protect them from other tribes, and from set- 
tlers — and to lead them on, by just examples, to perneive the superiority 
of agriculture and arts, and civic laws, to the precariousness and wild 
mysticisms and maxims of the hunter state. 



THE METEOROLOGY OF MINNESOTA. 



The following letter and useful matter of the meteorology of Minneso- 
ta, are furnished by John W. Bond, of St. Paul : 

Saint Paul, April 3d, 1851. 

Sir : — -It is with lively feelings of interest and satisfaction, that I have 
the pleasure of acknowledging through you the receipt of a certificate of 
membership to the Minnesota Historical Society. 

Believd me, sir, that in no subject appertaining to the past, present and 
future welfare of our Territory, do [ feel a more deep and abiding inte- 
rest; and nothing could have occurred, which would have proved more 
gratifying to myself, or more congenial with my feelings, than in becom- 
ing a member of the Society with which it has done me the honor to asso- 
ciate my name. 

1 consider its formation at this early period, in the infancy of our Ter- 
ritory, and almost coeval with its organization, as a credit and an honor 
to its founders, and the land of interest and beauty which they have 
chosen for their dwelling place — the home of their adoption ; a land 
whose unwritten history abounds in legendary lore and romance, com- 
bined with a rich material of a still more interesting and instructive char- 
acter, forming a wide field for deep inquiry and research, in which it is 
to be hoped every true lover of Minnesota will enter with pleasure and 
alacrity.' 

It is the duty more especially of every member, to contribute some- 
thing to the common stock of information, and to promote, by every 
means within his power, the advancement of the Society. 

For myself, 1 know not in what way I can better subserve its interests 
at this time, than in presenting the accompanying meteorological obser- 
vations for the winter of 1850-51 ; which have been made with consider- 
able care and labor, and may be relied on as being strictly correct. 

As it is a subject of very general interest throughout the States ; and 
wpon which there at present exists much misapprehension ; and believ- 
ing thai a series of correct reports, regularly continued throughout tht 
year, will greatly tend to the rapid settlement and consequent benefit of 
our Territory, 1 shall take pleasure in furnishing to the Society from 
time to time such results of my observations as will prove alike valuable 
and interesting to every present and future citizen of this premising and 
inviting land — "The New England of the West." 

I return to the Society, through you as the Secretary thereof, my cor- 
dial thanks for their kind consideration. 

Very respectfully, 

Yours, &c, 

JOHN W. BOND. 

Hon. C. K. Smith. 



METEOROLOGICAL REGISTER, 

For the W tnler of 1C50-51. 
KLept at St. ]?anl, L.at. 11 cleg. 50 mi". N., Long. 93. dc£. 5 mln. W. 

BY J. W. BOND. 

DECEMBER, 1850. i 



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Review of the month. — Clear days. 8; cloudy 8; variable 15. 

Winds.— West, N. VV. and N. prevailed most of the month — F. S. E. 
to N. E. about 10 days. 

No ruin fell. — Snow to the depth ofone foot, has fallen since the 15th 
November. 

Sumiua r y.— Greatest height of Mercury 34 — least height of mercury, 

20 deg. below. 

Monthly range, 54 — mean temperature of month 1.16 — mean tempera- 
ture at 2 p. m.. 21. 

Coldest day, Dec. 6th — mean temperature of coldest day 9 deg. be- 
low — Wannest day Dec. 20th. 

Mean temperature of warmest day 23 5 — least daily variation, 6 deg. 
greatest dady variation 34. 

Mercury fell below zero 14 days — rose 2 deg above freezing on the 
21st, and thawed rapidly. 



REVIEW OF THE WEATHER FOR DECEMBER. 

After a most delightful fall, during which the weather continued warm 
and dry. and afforded us as fine an Indian Summer as any clime could 
boast — the skies as clear and blue — the sun as watm and bright, arid air 
sis soft and balmy as that of the south of France or Italy; np lo the 15th 
November, when the first blast ot winter cz me upon us ecccii panied with 
a light fall of snow, the mercury tailing in the ccuite ol a U w din s, fn m 
about 70 to 10 and 12 deg. above zero; the river became fdkd with ice, 
in the midst of which, the last boat of the season, the indefatigable little 
"Yankee" arrived, on the night ol the 1 8th. leaving the next day lor Still- 
water and below. She was toll* wed on the 22d by the Enterprise as far 
as Red \\ iiig some 50 miles below, when her officers lackii g ibat which 
her name implies, very unceremoniously landed their freight and pass- 
engers in the woods; and headed her down stre; m as last as possible — 
albeit, the weather had moderated and the mercury lose as hi^h as £6 
deg. On the 21st winter gave way again to Indian Summer, which 
lingered in its lap a week, and ser med indeed most loth lo leave, 'i he 
river soon became clear of floating ice, which, hum it g towaic's the g.ulf, 
left the channel free for navigation — which cught in justice to us. to have 
been continued up to December 1st. This ineonveinn ce and draw Lack 
to our business can only be remedied in futtue. by cm citize i s Luiidii ga 
few boats themselves, and then man them with our own people, who can 
winter here, and keep tlum at it so long as the power of steam will make 
a wheel revolve, over and among all obstiuctions. till the rivet is posi- 
tively going to close in earnest and not depend on strangers al y h i ger, 
whose only interest in us is regulated by the price of freights till their fear 
of being frozen up; '-Cause them to lose the good they oft might win, by 
fearing to attempt." 

On the 28th November, winter reasserted his supremacy, and old Bo- 
yeas whistled forth his keenest blasts from the N. N. W. December 
opened with a snow storm, the mercury falling to zero on the evening of 
the 3J. and keeping steady on the decline, reached its minimum (20 
deg. below) at daylight on the 6th; again rising in a few d.-.ys to 24 deg. 
above, and has kept itself pretty well up tor the most part since. The 



1G1 



river closed on the night of the 31 and on the 4th was firm, solid and 
pass ible On the 8th the greatest fall of snow took place, (about 4 
inches) afFordinggpoo* sleighing up to the 20th and 21st, when the wind 
being lo tie southard, a rapid liiaw took place. Several other light tails 
have taken place, averaging about two inches; the whole being less than 
generally tails in a more southern latilti lo Un the morning of the 4th 
and 5th "several mock suns, or sun dogs, were visible from sunrise until 
almost noon, a Abiding one of the most beautiful sights ever witnessed, 
ortluit could be weil imagined. 

KtiMArtKS. — The above is a verv fair specimen of a Minnesota winter, 
and has hci n on ihe whole, much pleasai tt r and more endurable, than 
that of the Middle or Western Mat* s ll uol ol uhij otlur part of the union. 
While the southern and eastern papers as far north as Madison and 
Prairie du Chieii, have been complaining (as usual) of much wet weath- 
er an 1 the sit cl.iug condition of the roads, hub deep with mud; we havft 
been hi s>ed with a dry bracing awiosphere — no rain or dampness — and 
firm hard roads besides the ice bound M ississippi. smooth and solid, af- 
fording the nest of sleighing for about tour months. These are advantages 
which make nm< nds for all the cold of " tliis high northern latitude," 
wh eh we i ctd about wlun stral gers jar j way. but which we do not teei 
when here. Too cold indeed? \\ by stranger, whereer this meets 
your eye if you were to go to the Laplander and tell him that it was cold 
he would be very apt to laugh at you, so would we here, and 1 do there- 
fore, pr;>y of you to believe no tales when here are facts before your 
eyes 1 admit the meicury does fall lower than in the ague shaking, 
bfllious latitudes, yet you are so braced up and strengthened by the 
purest atmosphere rft'dl floats around our globe, that ycu feel the cold, 
much h-ss than eve r you have done at home. 

The writer of this article sp< i this l;st winter in latitude 23 (leg. south, 
under a tropical, Vertical sun w here the mercury ranged iiom GO to 106 
deg. Fn m f\ov until May— he h.- s chang* d his latitude in a few months 
to 45 deg north [& difference ol C-8 d«a — quite an extreme by the by.) 
and yet Ire has sut? red less; and expects to lor the balance ol the winter, 
if mi 11" ring it can be called; than he i vcr did while a regular acclimated 
citizen ol the eastern or middle stales. i'( me on stranger with a bold 
heart, m ver say too cold again, that is a poor excuse for an enterprising 
man, c> me on the first spring boat, and il }iu don't soon feel more like a 
man than ever yon have betore; and as a man should feel, then will i 
emigrate to w here you come from, and forever alter hold my peace. 

Krraia. Pngc 1G~ — Mean temperature of Dec. 1.1G; should he 11. G degrees. 

Note. The prece ing and following tables nhow the Minimum, Maximum an<' 
Mean lu ijrjii of ihe mercury, < ui ing i lie whoie twenty-lour houra of each caj — rock- 
oaing iroin 12 o'clock P. to the following n;5 night. 

The absence of barometrical observations in these report?, is owing' to the fact thai 
rot a single good barometer was to he fdund wit in the Territory. This inconvenient; 
wail soon bo reme. i'd, uni regular ui:hy observations will hereafter bo given. 

h s n 



162 



JANUARY, 1851, 



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Summary. — Mean temperature of month. 13.4. Mean temperature at 
sunrise, 6.44; mean temp, at 2 p. m.. 22.63. Least height ot mercury, 
32.5. ; greatest height of mercury, 44. Monthly range, 76 5. Coldest 
day, January 30th. Mean temperature of coldest day, 20 below. 
Warmest day, January 8lh. .Mean temperature of warmest day, 31.6. 
Least daily variation, 7. Greatest daily variation. 44. Mercury fell to 
and below zero on 12 days. Mercury rose to and above the freezing 
point on 14 days. RccipUulatiov — Clear 9 days; clear and cloudy 
J3 days ; cloudy 9 days. Snow fell on 10 days, and to the depth of 
about one foot in all. Hain fell very slightly on two days. Winds N. 
to N. VV and VV. 15 days; S. E. to E.'and N. E. 8 days. Variable 
3 days ; thawed in the sun on 13 days — very rapidly at times. 



REVIEW OF THE WEATHER FOR JANUARY. 

The year and month opened most auspiciously in this latitude, and 
our weather, during the first two weeks, was for the most part delightful, 
being mild, warm and pleasant. Dame Nature seemed to be in one of 
her kindest, happiest moods, and gave us days fashioned after, and in 
keeping with, the fairest of her creations. This being an innovation up- 
on the cold and steady uniformity of a "Minnesota winter." has been 
termed the January thaw, and occurs regularly each year. During this 
period, the sun shone mostly very warm and bright ; and the December 
snows disappeared quite rapidly — the hard and icy roads, which had af- 
forded us hitherto, most excellent sleighing, became for the time being, 
somewhat soft, and the muddy earth peeped out for the first, and it is to 
be hoped for the last time till spring. A great change indeed, seemed to 
have come over the spirit of old Winter's dreams; even his late rude, 
boisterous winds were tempered down, and his icy breath grew mild, and 
soft, and balmy. Had not the hills and bluffs around us been clothed 
in winter's livery of white, and the ice-bound Mississippi been before our 
eyes, each testifying silently, that the cheerful joyous spring was yet 
afar, we could have well supposed that the icy king had taken his flight 
and left us altogether ; and our eyes would have turned involuntarily to- 
wards the lower landing, and our ears have listened eagerly for the wel- 
come and pleasant sound of the first shrill whistle and loud sounding 
steamboat bell. 

The mean temperature during the early part of the month, was 22 6, 
the maximum temperature being 39 deg. On the night of the 15th a 
very rapid change took place, commencing with a light fall of snow, and 
(lie wind shifting suddenly from its warm quarter, east, south-east, to 
west, on the morning of the 16th; which was the most inclement, blus- 
tering day. thus far, of the winter. Oa this and the 17th, old Boreas vis- 
ited us with his keenest, rulest blasts, and in the most unceremonious, 
rough and ready manner possible ; the thermometer indicating 20 and 31 
deg. below zero, on the 1 7th and 18th respectively. 

The temperature on the 18th at sunrise, was the minimum thus far; 
and it was attained with the wind west, and the air calm, dry, bracing, 
and very invigorating, altogether — we could have lived whole centuries, 
feeling as we all then felt, with the blood sparkling, coursing and running 
riot through our veins, and our lungs expanded, healed and purified, 



1G4 



burning up more oxygen at every inspiration, than the " Little Yankee** 
throWfc off steam through her scape pipe, and we would never once h ;ve 
i'eit th; t ennui and tediousiiess ol lile which we so often hear of. W e 
could have lelt. and do fee! away uj) here to the north, a pleasure in our 
existence, such as no other people can rejoice in. and we thank tiod dai- 
ly that he has brought us into being, and given us a climate and a coun* 
try for our dwelling places, where we can live well, feel well, and he well 
while we live. 'I he only ouiward sensations attending so low a tt mpe* 
rature — and they are not unpleasant — is a slight tingling ol the n-ose and 
ears ; otherwise, when the air is calm, the cold is a mere bagatelle, and 
not so much felt as the humid air of the States, at 10 to 20 deg. above — 
especially where cold winds prevail. 

On the 19th, we had a heavy snow storm, (about six inches.) from the 
east, and ihe mercury rose to 32 6 — a change of 63^ deg. in thiity hours 
— falling next morning, (2uth) with the wind west, to 18 below ; again 
rising in thirty hours, (noon on the 21st) to 42 degrees above — a vuria- 
don of til deg ; this v/as the highest point the mercury bad reached thus 
far. during the winter. A rapid thaw of the snow again took place, and 
the air whs as mild and balmy as that of spring. 

On the 23d. with a waitu southerly wind, the mercury reached it* 
maximum, (44 deg, above) again falling to zero, with a west wind, at 10 
P. M., thus proving itself very unsteady and unreliable, even here. 'J he 
balance of the month remained cold and steady, up to the morning of 
the 28th when th«s wind again shifted suddenly from E. JS. E. to N. N. 
W., the mercury somi evinced a downward tendency : falling at sun* 
rise on the 29th, to 24 deg. below — at 10 A. M. it stood at 20 deg., and 
rising at noon to 16 deg ; its maximum at 3 P. M., being 10 below and 
mean t< mpe rature about 17 below. At sunrise on the 30th. it had fallen, 
to 32 5 below, being our minimum thus far; and a temperature only 
equalled by that ol the coldest of all cold places in the States, viz : Fran- 
coma. IN. li. '1 he 3 th was our coldest day up to the present hue. and 
most likely will be found to have been the coldest of the whole winter- 
mean temperature 20 deg. below. 

On the morning oi the 31st, the wind veered remd to the E. S. E,, 
and the atmosphere warmed up at sunrise, to 16 below ; the mercury 
going above once more, and the month closed out mildly. 

'1 lie weather ol the 28?h. like that of the 17th, was an exception to and 
at complete variance with all othei cold days of the winter ; being cloudy 
with very high winds, and extremly stormy and inclement, 'i lie 29th 
and 3v,th were as clear, bright and beautiful, and as bracing and reviv* 
ing a* any nature ever fash. cued. With the air as calm and dry as it 
was then, we can bear a temperature of 38 and 40, at which the inercu* 
ry itself will freeze ; and with impunity say ** Lay on Macduff &c.," 
and every thermometer in the Territory may break from excessive cold, 
before any Minnesotian will ever once cry "hold, enough. 5 ' 

The distant reader should not be alarmed at the proceeding. These 
extremes are but ' few and far between," and of but short duration, and 
can ea-iiy be borne. \\ hen they do come, and 'tis now the third time, 
they, like all extremes, out Herod Herod in their intensity. As a g«ei>* 
eral thing our temperatures are a variation fr< m moderate, to v\ hut in 
rriost pi ices would be called a great degree of cold ; not a constant die* 
mental war from heat U> cold, wet to dry, each striving for the mastery. 



165 



rendering all confusion worse confounded among the elements, till it 

"would almost be preferable to have chaos itself again among us. 

On the morning of the 16th, the beautiful sight of two mock suns wa3 
again visible; also at sunrise and sunset, on the 17th. They wave not 
equal in beauty and brilliancy to those of last mouth, to which I allud-jd 
in my first report. As it may prove of interest, especially to those who 
have never witnessed them, I append the following extract from my 
*• Weather Journal" for December : 

"On the morning of the 4th and 5th, at sunrise, the beautiful phenom- 
enon of two and three m.ick suns w is presented to in my admiring eyes ; 
iheir large diverging rays of light resting upon the horizon as a base, 
while from their centres a large. Iirjght luminous circle arched and 
apre id around old Sol, rising with him; while his two mock rivals merg- 
ed into a still brighter ring, continuing for several hours, and until its low- 
er edgj just dipped below the horizon, its upper reaching to the zenith, 
wh m it gradually vanished into the cold, calm, frosty air, and slowly 
disappeared. * The air hath bubbles as the water hath, and these are of 
them. " 

On the evening of the 16th, even the moon, staid, prim and mo lest as 
she appears to be, got up an exhibition on her own account, and by a 
m >st in iguifieient display, almost excelled the beauties of her more illus- 
trious rival of the morning. i\ot having the good fortune to witness fair 
Luna's charms, I extract the following from the Ckronmle $ K gister :. 

*• fne most magnificent sight we ever biheld, occurred on Thursday 
evening I ist. When the moon ro.*e above the horizon the radiation of 
her lignt was reflected back upon the sky, and three m )ons were visible 
at tile same time — each distinct, bright and beautiful, and surrounded 
with a d irk shadow, melting away into a pmu nlva tingj I on its edges 
with colors, not much dissimilar to the rainbow. Wneu in the zenith, 
this circle became broad and distinct, and the mo >n sho ie out in it like 
a be*, Hi mt set in leal. No lurjig? c v,\ picture tie s x -p is i ng gran- 
deur of tne scene, and those who witnessed it will long remember it as a 
mo^l remarkable manifestation in the heavens," 

These mock suns and moons are a phenomena often witnessed in the 
colder regions of the globe, and sometimes in temperate climes during 
cold weather, and are called hulas and parhelia. A h do usu illy con- 
sists of two concentric circles of colored or refracted light sueh as that 
of the rainbow; the one forming an angle of about 23J deg., the other of 
about 47 deg., with the sun or moon, in different parts of tli3se circles, 
and chiefly in opposite points with the sun or moon, at a similar alti- 
tuie, Urig.il spots of unrefracted light aro seen, which have received the 
najtfies of mock suns and mock moons, according as the light is 
received from the. sun or moon, during the continuance of the halo. — 
yrom these bright spots, diverging rays or horns of light are mostly ob- 
servable. It is generally agreed that a halo is produced by the sun or 
moon's light being refracted by frozen vapor in the atmosphere. The 
cause of the parhelia or bright sun like spot is more difficult of defini- 
tion. Some- suppose it to be frozen vapor, being arranged in such a man- 
ner at particular points, as allows of the light of the sun or moon being 
Iran mitted in a concentrated instead of refracted form. 

Several heavy hoar frosts took place during the month.. On the morn- 
ng of the 7th. at sunrise, it appeared like a beautiful powdery crystaii- 
zation on all the trees and herbage, and hung upon the surrounding for- 



166 



ests like a snow; each of the little crystal needles sparkling in the sun- 
light like a jewel. This is only frozen dew, and is a wise arrangement 
of nature, by which plants are protected from the severity of a f reezing 
cold atmosphere. 

As regards our climate in general, 1 would remark, that there can be 
no more certain criterion of the climate of any country than its vegeta- 
ble productions; and it may therefore be mentioned here generally, that 
while all the grains and vegetables of the Middle and Western States 
are found within the bounds of Minnesota, with almost every variety of 
tree, shrub, flower and herb ; and that while all the tame grasses, and 
most of the fruits can be cultivated within her limits, with the exception 
of the peach, perhaps, (which I believe has failed at Galena and Du- 
buque,) every objection to its being too cold, falls to the ground ; even 
man can live more comfortably and healthfully, and possess more hardi- 
ness, than he can at any point to the south. He can live out ! is allotted 
time on earth, if he lives rightly; and without wearing the liveries of 
death impressed and stamped upon his features, while he does ex>st. as 
do many of the inhabitants of the lower Mississippi, the Illinois \\ abash 
and Miami, with those who shake upon and eke out a miserable exist- 
ence upon the banks of a thousand other kindred streams that flow amid 
the billious, miasmatic districts of the whole great West and South. In 
Minnesota, billious disorders are seldom heard of; and 1 believe I am 
safe in saying that fever and ague are unknown, unless imported with 
the patient from below. At the time when the cholera was making such 
fearful ravages in the valley of the lower Mississippi, not a single case 
occurred within our Territory, although steamboats were in constant 
communication with St. Louis and othei points below. 

Although we are situated in a comparatively high latitude, the climate 
is more mild and temperate than those who live farther south would im- 
agine. The most favorable characteristic as far as health is concerned, 
is its dryness in winter. Farmers who have emigrated hither from a- 
more southern latitude, find that their cattle suffer less from cold, than 
in a country more open and more subject to sudden thaws and rains or 
dampness. 

The Hon. Judge Jenks. of Pennsylvania, in a series of well written 
and interesting sketches of our Territory and its climate, says: "Many 
farmers who formerly resided in a lower latitude, have informed me that 
their cattle have a dry coat during the winter, and suffer less from cold, 
•&c." 

" Gen, Fletcher, who is located at the Winnebago Agency, above lati- 
tude 46 dog., and near the northern extremity ofthe agricultural portion 
of Minnesota, informed me that -his catlle were running at large last win- 
ter, and lived on wild rushes, and were in a thriving condition in the 
spring.' " 

E. S. Seymour, in his late work on the Territory, says : " The high 
latitude in which it is situated will operate upon the minds of some as a 
serious objection to making it a place of residence. It is an error very 
generally prevailing, to judge of a climate by its latitude. Numerous 
circumstances tend to modify the climate, or produce great difference of 
climate in two sections ofthe same zone. The geography of a country 
has much to do with its climate ; its topography, its elevation, its lakes 
and rivers, hills and valleys, its soil, forests, prevailing winds, moisture, 
and dryness, more or less affect its temperature." He speaks particu- 



167 



larly of the dryness of the atmosphere in winter, and of the absence of 
high winds. 

The Uon. H. II. Sibley, our present delegate in Congress, who has re- 
sided here for many years, in a letter to the lion. Henry S. Foote. says : 
*' The climate is not subject to sudden variation, especially in winter. 
Although some years snow la Is t> a considerable depth, as a genera! 
rule, wc have far less than is tiie case either in New England or the 
northern part of the State of New York. The comparative absence of 
moisture is attributable, doubtless, to the fact that no very large bodies of 
water are to be found, although small lakes abound. During the coldest 
weather in winter the air is perfectly still ; consequently the temperature 
is mncli more tolerable, and even pleasant, than could be supposed by 
those who reside on the stormy Atlantic coast. The navigation of the 
Mississippi is not to be relied on alter the first week in November ; and 
steamboats arrive in the spring about the 10th or 12th of April ^last year 
it was not tdl the 1 9th ) so that the river may be considered closed about 
five mo itlis in the year. 1 have known steamers to reach St. Paul as late 
as the IS h or 20th ot November, (this was the case last fall) and get 
back safely to Galena, to return by the 1st of April ; but this is not usu- 
ally the case." 

Mr. Sibley speaks of our territory as a land where nature hr.s lavished 
her choicest gifts — where sickness has no dwelling place- -where the 
dreaded cholera has not cl inned a single victim. The sun shines not 
upon a fairer region, one more desirable as a home for the mechanic, 
the farmer, and the laborer, or where their industry will be more surely 
•requited than Minnesota. 

The Rev. E. D. Neill, of this place, whose word is as good as the 
bond of any man, in a recent Thanksgiving address, says : •* Uninter- 
rupted general health has prevailed throughout the land. The country 
so far re as near an El Dorado as any ever found beneath the skies, and 
its fount nil is are as pure and renovating as any that are not fountains of 
eternal life." 

But I need not multiply authorities like these; the salubrity and 
foealthfulness of our climate is well established, and has become prover- 
bial. 

I will repeat it here, thai the river closed at this place on the night of 
the 3.1 I )ecember— navigation could have continued up to Deotmber 
1st ; as it was. however, die last boat left us on the 19th of November. 

Norn — It was at one time imagined that the greatest cold could make 
the fluid in the thermometer fab only 32° degrees below the freezing 
point ; the place to which it then fell being zero, and therefore the nota- 
tion his been commence I by Fahrenheit at that place. But much great- 
er degrees of cold exist at different parts of our globe in winter, and may 
even be produced artificially, so that the fluid in the stem of the ther- 
mometer often descends far below that iniMginary point, and is then said 
to be so m my degrees below zero. I have therefore called that point on 
the graduated scale of the thermometer, at which the mercury falls the 
lowest, its m ; ni?n>t.m below, or least point on the whole scale, without at- 
taching so much importance to the mark zero, as to reckon both ways, 
and call each extreme, above and below the maximum, as is sometimes 
done. 



1G8 



FEBRUARY, IP51. 



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179 



Summary. — Mean temperature of the month. 20.7. Mean tempera- 
tun* at 2 p, r-i.. 2J.03. Mean temperature at sunrise. 12. 5 ; least height 
of mercury, 2J below zero; greatest height of mercury, 47; monthly 
range 67; least daily variation. 7 ; greatest daily variation 42. Mer- 
cury fell to and helow z to on 1 1 days ; rose to and ahove the freezing 
point on 16da\s. Coldest day. February 11th; mean temperature of 
do.. 2.G. Wannest day, February 25th; mean temperature oi do., 
36.6. 

RrcajnluJatinv. — Clear 5 days; variahle 17 days; cloudy 6 days. 
Winds VV. N. VV. to N. 15 days ; E. 3. E. to N. E. 7 days ; "variahle 6 
days. Snow f V - 1 1 on days — very sightly, ahout one inch in all. Pain, 
very slight, fell on 3 days. 18th. Mock suns and hoar frost. Thawed 
in tile sun on 18 days — very rapidly ai times. 



REVIEW OF THE WEATHER FOR FEBRUARY. 

It will he seen that a considerahle portion of the weather for the past 
month, has heen quiie warm, and somewhat damp, changeable and un- 
pleasant, for a climate whose characteristic tor cold and steady uni- 
formity in winter, combined with a dry and even temperature lor the 
most part, has been so well established as that of Minnesota. The 
mouth upon the whole has been an unusually mild one, much more so 
than it has heen for several years ; its mean temperature being 9.1 and 
7 3 degrees higher than that of the preceding months of Dect tuber and 
J ami iry respectively . 

Wit!) the exception of ab m* ten cUys of moderately cold weitlier. the 
month, like the ftvst fifteen d us of J anil try, seemed to h ivj been one of 
those dreams of spring which soui times visit the weather in the course 
of its hybernations, and with a cloudless blue .sky, a soft and balmy air. 
and a rapid and unmitigated thawing in all quarters, dunging anon 
to clouds with rain and tog and dan p less, seemed more befitting fickle 
April than the dull and sombre period which has just ejapsed. 

it should, in justice to ( ur climate, be stated here thai this is alto- 
gether an innovation upon its general character, and while an exceed- 
ingly mild winter is occasion illy experienced, as a general thing they 
are characterized by a regular continuation of cold, dry. bracing wea- 
ther, (with the exception ot a Janu iry thaw) for about lour months, ac- 
companied with little or no rain, and fewer sudden changes than have 
marked the one iust closed. 

The month of December was a more correct criterion by which to 
judge of the gjner I temperature and meteorological condition of our win- 
ters. January and February for the most parts, mu^t be considered as 
exceptions altogether. January having given us the coldest days of the 
waiter expired very mildly in the mjdst of a heavy snow, and was suc- 
ceeded by a week of warm, clear and very beautiful weather— its un- 
seasonubieness being the only objection to it — during which the sun 
shone with considerable power, and a very rapid " February thaw 1 took 
place, the mean temperature being as high as 23.1. while that of the sec- 
ond week in January readied 26 2. After a damp raw, and very- 
disagreeable day upon the 8th. accompanied with a drizzling rain, a very 
favorable change took place, and we were \isited lor a few days with a 



170 



clear, cold, bracing atmosphere, keen and cutting from the N . N. W. t 
the mercury for the fourth time going down to 20 degrees below at sun- 
rise on the 11 th ; rising on the 12th at noon, with the wind E. S. K., to 
47 degrees — its maximum during the winter and a variation in 30 hours 
of 67 degrees — the maximum extreme. On the morning of the 16th it 
again fell to 15 degrees below ; as the wind veered to its old favorite 
quarter Vv. N. W., rising as suddenly in 30 hours (viz. noon on the 
17th) to 36— variation 51 degrees. 

I would mention here, that while the prevailing winds have been from 
the west to N. N. W. for about two thirds of the winter yet they have 
seldom remained at these points longer than from two to three days at a 
time at the farthest, and as they have invariably shifted round to the E. 
S. E. : clouds, snow, and sometimes rain and a damp condition of the 
atmosphere, with sudden variations in the temperature as we have seen, 
are the accompaniments. The sudden changes from a comparative to 
a great degree of cold, ranging, as I have before remarked, from near 
the freezing point to f r below zero, are felt less sensibly, and can be 
borne with less personal discomfort than would be easily imagined, A 
spell of warm, damp, cloudy, and murky weather now again ensued, 
with rain, mist, and tog upon the 19th, which was a most execrable day 
and a disgrace to the climate, whose peculiar erratic whims of late! 
have most impartially chronicled, having nothing extenuated, nor set 
down aught in tnalice," but given a plain unvarnished tale — the stub- 
born facts as usual. 

On the morning of the 24th, a heavy fog prevailed from the westward 
which congealed in a cold atmosphere very rapidly, and Tailing in a hoar 
frost, was soon dissipated by a bright warm sun, and the very heavy 
thaw which characterized the month. 

The 25th was the warmest day of the winter, the mean temperature 
being 36 6 degrees; wind E. 8. E., another rapid thaw took pi ce, the 
heaviest of the winter. Almost all the snow in this region disappeared, 
and was succeeded by running streams and mud in great prolusion. 
St. Paul seemed converted for the time being into one ol the mired and 
overflown villages of Hoosierdom ; but thanks to its high locality upon a 
limestone ledge, it is still upon the surface. The mean temperature of 
the week ending this day, was 31 43 the highest of the winter. In con- 
sequence of so long a continued thaw, the ice in the Mississippi became 
mueh weaker and overflown, rendering traveling upon it unsafe and dif- 
ficult, and everything in short betokened a speedy breaking up of win- 
ter, and speculations as to the first arrival of the boats were indulged in 
freely. This, as uigh't h ive been anticipated, was but a spell or charm 
which the precocious spring in embryo had cast o'er winter's ru le and 
iron sway ; and as s ! ie, with her winning smiles and balmy airs essayed 
to soothe him into gentleness and lure him off to still more northern 
climes, he, nothing loath departed in a pleasing dream — not dead, but 
sleeping, lingering in the lap ot th it deceitful, fickle syn n— early spring. 
But anon the icy king aroused himself — he whose very tears are hail 
drops, and his blood sn<>w water — his beard all icicles, and his breath 
frost, was not to he restrained ; exerting all his powers for perhaps i% 
last and mighty effort, h« came anew, refreshed and vigorous, from the 
W. N. W. at 3 a. m. on the 26th. the mercury falling in a few hours from 
42 to 12 at sunrise. Old Boreas reigned again supreme, and sent forth 
his icy blasts which shrieked and howled like fiends let loose, exulting 



171 



o'er their prey. As if by magic, the earth's soft surface hardened o'er, 
the watery waste of slush and u.ud dried up. and Richard wan himself 
again the day continued cold and windy ; the mercury f II to zero in 
the evening and at sunrise on the 27th stood at C degrees below. The 
balance of the month continued cold and bracing, and the la.st few days 
were among the pleasantest of the winter, which ended as it beganj 
clear, fine, and very invigorating. Even the fickle wind* were steady to 
| the W. N. W. during the first week of winter, and remained so at its 

close — forming exceptions to what has been already stated. 

I have the authority of a number of old settlers who have spent manv 
years wichin the Territory, for saying that although the past winter has 
been more mild and changeable than any other for several years, with 
more rain and dampness, and heavier thaws, yet on the whole it may be 
considered as approximating sufficiently near an average, to convey a 
tolerably correct idea of what materials a winter in this latitude i.s made 
of. however intermingled, undefined, and chaotic they have appeared of 
J ate. 

While a slight sprinkling of rain, which soon turns to snow, sometimes 
occurs, but one heavy rain in winter has fell in the last ten years ; almost 
all the moisture of the atmosphere being precipitated in the shape of snow 
and hoar frost, the frozen vapory particles of the latter can be easily 
seen floating and sparkling in the sunlight, and flashing in tin 1 morning 
•beams till the whole air seems filled with gems, giving us frequent exhi- 
bitions of mock suns or sun dogs, which again occurred, though imper- 
fectly, on the morning of the 18th. 1 am inioimed that not a drop of rain 
has fallen 40 miles north of this place during the past winter. Two feet 
of snow is a large quantity, and more than the average — there being win- 
ters of late years, when not enough has fallen for common sledding pur- 
poses—the ground scarcely being covered — though these are remarka- 
ble exceptions. 

In presenting a general review of the weather for the winter, I would 
again press upon the mind of the distant reader, the fact of the peculiar 
dryness generally prevalent, and the superior healthfulness of a northern 
latitude. Our weather is much more clear awl pleasant than the tables 
I have presented would seem to indicate, as many days mostly clear and 
bright, yet not entirely so. I have classed as variable, which, under a less 
rigid systcisa of classification, would comprise a large proportion of the 
whole. 

I am not aware that any regular meteorological observations have 
heretofore been made within the Territory, and have no data from which 
to give the mean annual temperature, or that of any preceding wit ter, 
with correctness. At Kort W innebago, Wisconsin, in lajititude 43° 35' 
north, which is nearly on a line with the main southern boundary of 
Minnesota ; the mean annual temperature for a term of years has been 
44 89. and for the winters 20 81, being a temperature corresponding 
very neai ly with that of the past month iirt.iis latitude, being 1 ° 10' to the 
northward. 

The mean temperature of the summer at Fort Winnebago is G7 97 de- 
grees. 

At Milwaukee, in latitude 43 Q # 3', the mean annual temperature for 
ihree years was 47 37 — of til l winter for the same period 25 70 — of the 
summer 07 34. Thus the winters are not on an average so severely 
cold, nor the summers so oppressively hot, as many may imagine. The 



172 



great lakes, no doubt, have a strong influence on the climate here, by 
Equalizing the temperature ; in consequence of which there are not the 
extremes of heat and cold so common elsewhere, neither is the climate 

no changeable. 

As regards the healthfulness of this region at all times, and more 
especially in winter, I would add that with proper care and no unneces- 
sary exposure, it may he safely said that coughs, cold, and that scourge 
of the Eastern States — consumption, would Ue almost entirely unknown. 
When either is utifortu lately contracted, no climate is better adapted 
lor their speedy eradication. It is all a mistake to send a consumptive 
patient to the South ; a mistake just becoming apparent to the faculty. 
Ra ider, if your lungs are diseased or weak, come to the North. 1 h ive 
triad both extremes, and can speak feelingly, the besr of all evidences, 
mid 1 confidently assert that you will stand far more chance of a recov- 
ery in this particular latitude than you wdl anywhere in the enervating 
South, even if it be the most salubrious of the VVest Indies. If your case 
is not a hopeless one our pure cold air will heal your unhealthy breast, 
and instil new life into your weak languid and drooping frame. Every 
breath of the sparkling ether that you inhale will prove a delightful and 
reviving luxury, and the precious gi;t of life will soon become a joy, de- 
light, and blessing. 



REVIEW OF THE WEATHER OF MINNESOTA FOR DECEM- 
BER, January; and February, isso-i. 





Cear. Vana' le. 


( ' uuily. 


Kaiii. 


SliOW. 


Hail. 


December, 


8 days 15 


8 




8 




January, 


9 " 13 


9 


2 


10 




February, 


5 « 17 


6 


3 


6 


1 


Total, 


22 45 


23 


5 


24 


i 



Mean temperature of December. 1 1 6. IVfean temperature of Janua- 
ry. 13 4. Mean temperature of February, 20 7. Mean temperature of 
the winter, 15 23. 

Least height of mercury, 32 5 below. 

Greatest height of mercury, 47. 

Range. 79 5. 

Coldest day, January 30 — mean temperature of do. 20 (leg. below. 

Warmest day. February 25 — mean temperature of do. 36 6. 

Least daily variation 6. 

Create.- 1 daily variation, 44. 

Mercury fell to and below zero on 37 days. 

Mercury rose to and above the freezing point on 31 days. 

Thawed in the sun on 33 days, very rapidly at times. 

Winds W.N. W. to N. 50 days— S. E. to*E. N. B. 20 days— varia- 
ble 20 days. * « 

Snow—about two feet in all has fallen since Nov. 15th, the heavies* 
fall being some six inches, most of the others were very slight. 

Rain— several very slight drizzling rains ' V ouk pjac*,. md> being a. noy- 



173 



elty almost unknown in this latitude in winter, deserves this special no- 
tice. 

As f.ir as the records of meteorological phenomena for a long scries of 
years, warrant a conclusion, the following principles respecting the wea- 
ther in iy be considered settled : I. The wea,her of each year .stands 
by itself. 2. The weather differs annually, and is different in different 
places according to circumstances. 3. The weather in the interior of 
continents is so regular in its seasonal variations, that it may be foretold 
with considerable certainty. 4. That agricultural improvements sucn 
as draining of moist grounds, improves the climate and tends to equalize 
temperature ; and 5. That the asperities ot cold in winter, and the ex* 
tretne Iie.it of summer, have been modified from this cause ; while, though 
in soma respects uncomfortable, our climate generally is improved in its 
salubrious properties ; and that of Minnesota in particular, by allowing 
out of door exercises and employment for a greater number of days in 
winter thin t!i it of most other countries, is highly conducive to health, 
longevity, and social intercourse and advancement. 

Prom a series of meteorological observations which I have made at 
the c.ty of I'hila lelp ua. during the past ten years, I have found the av* 
erage temperature during the winter months for that period, to be as fol- 
lows : 

December — Maximum temperature 50 degrees. Minimum tempera- 
ture 16 degrees Mean temperature 33 5 degrees. 

January — Maximum temperature 45 decrees. Minimum temperature 
17 degrees. Mean temperature 32 3 degrees. 

Februiry — Maximum tempsrature 64 degrees. Minimum tempera- 
ture 17 degrees. Mean temperature 34 5. 

Mean temperature of Pennsylvania winters. 33.4 degrees. 

The following table shows the average state of the weather for each 
«nonth of the year, during the same period, by which the difference in th© 
climate of (he Middle States and that of Minnesota will be more readily 
observable: 



Mo:.*TH3. 



Janu try - • 
February- 
March --• 
Mril* ... 

May 

Junt 

Ju'y 

Jlugp&t • • • 
September. 
October • • 
November . 
December- 

Tulai .... 



Clear. 


Vau'blk. 


Cloudy. 


Rajny. 


Rains. 


Snows. 


Hail. 


12 


11 


5 


3 


5 


3 


1 


14 


6 


3 


5 


7 


2 




1.1 


5 


8 


5 


14 


3 




13 


9 


I 


7 


13 






13 


11 


4 


3 


13 




1 


16 


12 


2 




13 






16 


13 




2 


12 






13 


17 




1 


12 






19 


8 


jj 


1 


8 






21 


6 


o 




7 






15 


7 


8 




8 


3 


1 


8 


8 


9 


G 


7 


6 


1 


I 1/5 


11J 


44 


33 


118 


17 


4 



174 



MARCH, 1851. 



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175 



Summary. — Mean temperature of t'ie month, 33 3 degrees. Mean 
temperature at sunrise, 24.42 ; mean temperature at 2 p. M., 48 (leg. ; 
minimum temperature, G below zero; maximum temperature. 77 (leg. 
Monthly variation, 83 deg ; least daily variation. 1 1 cleg. ; greatest daily 
variation, 41 deg. Coldest (lay. March 2d; mean temperature ot cold- 
est dav, 6 6 (leg. Warmest day, March 26th ; mean temperature of 
warmest day, 59.4 deg. Mercury fell to and below zero on 3 days; 
mercury fell to and below the freezing point on 25 days ; mercury rose 
to and above the freezing point on 26 days. 

Recapitulation. — Clear and fine 14 days; variable 15 days; cloudy 
2 days, Rain fell on 3 days; snow on 7 days, to the depth of about 
four inches ; hail on 2 days. Winds W . N . W . to N. 17 ; E. S. K. to 
N. R. 10 days; variable 4 days. There has been on the whole less 
wind thus far than in the Eastern, Middle, or Western States at this sea- 
son of the year. 22J. Aurora Borealis visible till 10 r.M. 



REVIEW OF THE WEATHER FOR MARCH, 1351. 

The weather during the greater part of the past month, has been truly 
beautiful and pleasant, and is believed to have never been surpassed on 
the continent of North America in the month of March. The days, witb 
the exception of the first week, seem jd fashioned after nature's fairest and 
most beautiful creations, and were such as make the sorrowful and heavy 
heart beat lightly, joyously and free; which touse the drooping spirits into 
life and elasticity; and in fact make us feel glad and happy in spite of 
ourselves, or of our cares and troubles. 

The face of heaven seemed as if just bathed with one of Nature's most 
choice cosmetics; and dried by the pure, life giving, gentle winds, more 
soft and balmy than any that in a more southern clime were ever wafted 
o'er fields of spice or orange groves; — except at times when the thick 
peculiar haze around the horizon, and from it upward to the zenith, 
slightly obscured the clear blue vault above, with that strange mellow, 
and dreamy appearance which characterizes the mo*t lovely of Indian 
summers in the older states, where the year is waning and falling into 
the sear and yellow leaf — all made it evident that we were passing 
through that most quiet, sedate and lovely portion of the year. Septem- 
ber; and it was hard — extremely hard to reali/.3 that the usual stormy, 
cold and boisterous month of March was, at the time upon us. 

About the middle of the month, the snows of the early part, and of 
4he preceeding winter, had all vanished before the rays of the warm, 
bright sun — the ice began to leave the river— the frost departed rapidly 
from the ground — which hardened over and dried up quickly and as if 
by m3gio — th« prairie grass became ignited far and wide, around us. and 
burnt like stubble fields during the balance of the month; the fierce flames 
rushing o'er hill and dale in their mad career, and gleaming like a hun- 
dred b jacon lights upon the bluffs; illuminating the heavens with a deep 
red glare, like an extensive conflagration, and throwing on high their 
thick black volumes; through which, the full orbed moon arose night after 
night fiery and threatning for an hour or two, then shining down her brightest 
beams upon the sparkling waters of the now open rivers and lake around; 
upon which the forked flames flashed their mim.c fires and leaped and daa- 



176 



ced into the still Right air — the scene was truly grand and most imposing 
— being scarce inferior to a moonlight vie w oi the bay of Naple* and with 
Mt. Vesuvius iti his greatest glory in the distance. 

The works of Nature are always surpassingly beautiful in Minne- 
sota. Her exhibitions in ihe shape of tlie Aurora Borealis, mock suns 
and moons and burning prairies are unequalled, the wide world over. 

Let t.iose of her admirers who wish to see her in her purity and un- 
trammelled by any work of art; but fresh from the hand of the Creator, 
and as lie 'fashioned them; and who wish to "look from nature up to 
nature's God;" let them but come to Minnesota and among her wilds 
and prairies they will in the words vf fchakspearej 

" Fin 1 tongues in trees, books in the running brooks, 
Sermons iu stones unJ goo.i in everything.*' 

Thus much in general and en passe nt; let us particularize. 

The winter hiving expired cold, clear and bracing, was followed by 
very similar weather for a week; March having entered in accordance 
with an old adage, like a roaring lion, raging and infuriated; accompa- 
nied by high colli w'mds and slight snow storms — the mercury falling on 
the morning of the 2d. to 2 deg. bidow. ami on the 3d reached its mini- 
mum during the month, of 6 deg. below, afterwards moderating, up to 
sun rise on the 8th; when ;tfell for the hist time to 2 d< g. below. During 
this period, about 4 inches of snow fell, the winds remained pretty steady 
to the W. N. VV.. and the mean temperature was as low as 17. 42, deg. 
being 3.3 deg. lower than the month of February and infinitely more 
seasonable atid pleasant. 

March bid fair to sustain his claims as a winter month; his right to it 
in this latitude being undisputed; but his efforts were attended with but 
poor success — the last rude boisterous blasts of winter were sounded on 
the 8th and his career was closed, 'ihe I aft Hike of the month was 
made up of the lovely weather described abovj. (with the exc< ption of a 
few obscured and windy days.) during which the thi i menu te r rat ged 
from near the freezing point to 77 deg., and for 3 wee ksin .succession it 
daily rose to over 50; — at times rising in the sun to over 1 1(j deg. 1 he 
average temp, of the second week, being 40. 16, and of the fir.->! hi: If of 
the month 23.78 On the 13th the mercury rose for the first time to 63£ 
degrees; wi id S. VV. to S. ; doors were opened wide and fires extin- 
guished as unnecessary; the snow had now all disappeared, and was 
again succeeded for a few days, by running streams and roads < ver- 
flown upon the prairies; the soil of which, being a sandy loam, absorbs 
all moisture, and they were soon as dry as in midsummer, and the trav- 
eling excellent, which ceased upon the liver on the 14 h a> unss'e -the 
margins having thawed out considerably and several accident* occurred. 
At the same time we were visited by a storm of thunder and lightning* 
with a heavy shower, which was followed on the morning of the 15th by 
a dense fog, which prevailed till almost noon. O.i the 17th. the usually 
inclement and blustering St. Patrick's Day passed off mos! beautifully, 
and, no do'ibt, caused the heart of every son of Erin in our Territory to 
bound within hi:n. and to fancy himself' in his own loved Emerald Isle 
again : ju Isjing by tha demonstrations of enthusiasm made on the occa- 
sion, they one and all felt themselves at home at least. 

On tiie 16th the ice a mile below St. Paul moved down the river to ths 
iake. On iha 1 7th it moved a hundred yards oi more at the upper land 



177 



irog ; and -on the 18th, the river was free from St. Paul to the Fort, six 
miles above ; it remaining gorged between our town and the islands op- 
posite until the 21st, when the last fragment passed away, and the river 
was once more clear and free as far as the eye could reach — a beautiful 
sight, and one only to be appreciated by those who have been isolated 
as we hyperboreans have been, for the last four months, from the great 
world below. The ice was very thin and rotten, and with an ice boat to 
have opened the lake below us (which is a sort of enlargement of the 
river for 21 miles, and to the width of 2£ miles), we could have had a 
steawiboat by the 20th of March. In the lake there is scarcely any cur- 
rent, and it is always several weeks later in opening its icy barriers ; 
hence an iceboat to force them open would, on an average, give us com- 
munication with the ports below on or before the 1st of April, and con- 
tiaue it up to the end of November in the fall. 

On the 21st the equinoctial passed off with clouds and high winds from 
the eastward, where no doubt a storm prevailed. On the evening of the 
22d a beautiful display of the Aurora Borealis was witnessed till 10 p. m. 
- — the first [ have noticed in this region. The mean temperature of the 
week ending the 22d was 40.94, and of the month thus far 32.14 deg. — 
the temperature rising rapidly as the month advanced ; that of the week 
ending the 29th being 50.11, and of the whole month 36.3 ; being 15. 
deg. higher than that of February, which was 20.7 degrees. 

On the 20th the annual spring freshet commenced at this point ; but, 
owing to the very gradual melting of the snows above, and the absence 
of any heavy rains, the rise thus far has been but slight — not more than 
some three feet at farthest. At this early period the snows and ice in the 
Mississippi had disappeared as far north as Crow Wing and Sandy lake, 
and the traveling to the former (128 miles) was excellent. Last year 
the sleighing was good to the same point up to the 1st of April. 

On the 23d wild prairie flowers were first observed springing up upon 
the bluffs — an indication of a very early season. On the morning of the 
27th we were suddenly visited with a very unfavorable change ; a rain 
storm, with slight hail and a very high wind, prevailed till noon — then 
cleared off fine again. 

On the morning of the 28th a heavy frost occurred, and was followed 
at daylight on the 29th with a storm of thunder and lightning, with slight 
rain from the west ; the atmosphere was very warm, and appeared to 
abound in electricity. At 4 p. m. another heavy storm of rain and hail, 
accompanied with vivid lightning, flash after flash for several hours, with 
deafening and terrific peals of thunder. The largest of the hail stones 
measured 1J inches in circumference. The storm attended by high 
winds continued at intervals throughout the evening. The temperature 
also fell from summer heat (76 deg.) to 25 deg. on the morning of the 
30th, being a variation of 51 deg. in 18 hours — a change almost unpre- 
cedented in the recollection of the writer of this article. The wind hav- 
ing shifted to the north, the weather continued cold and wintry during 
the 30th. A heavy snow fell during the morning, which melted as it 
reached the saturated earth. The keen, cold winds came afresh from 
the frozen zone, and blew in angry, fitful gusts, while the whole external 
face of nature seemed bleak and gloomy in the extreme. At noon the 
chaotic elemental wars of the last 24 hours ceased ; the storm passed 
off; the face of Heaven brightened, and March again redeemed himself. 

H s 12 



178 



At sunrise on the 31st, a hoar frost hung upon the trees and bushes ; the- 
air was calm and cold, and the month drew near its close, smiling bright, 
yet chilling. As the day advanced the wind again shifted to the south ; 
the atmosphere warmed up ; a rapid thaw took place, and the month ex- 
pired in keeping with the good old adage," like a lamb." 

The following summary shows the least height of the thermometer,, 
with the coldest days during the past seven years, together with the clo- 
sing ofthe navigation, the first arrival in the spring, and the total number' 
of arrivals yearly, as registered by Mr. Prescott of Fort Snelling. 

In 1844 thsre were 41 arrivals. Navigition closed November 24th. 
In 1845, 48 arrivals. The St. Peters and Mississippi closed November 
24th and 26th. The coldest day of 1845-6, was February 20th. Ther- 
mometer 18° below zero. In 1846, there were but 24 arrivals. The 
decrease was caused by low water. The rivers closed November 26th, 
The St. Peters opened again December 1st, and closed finally Decem- 
ber 3d. Coldest day ofthe winter, January 27th ; thermometer 27deg. 
below zero., In 1847 there were 47 arrivals. The St. Peters closed No- 
vember 24th, and the Mississippi the 29th. Coldest day of the winter, 
January 9th; 28 deg. below zero. In 1848. 63 arrivals. Rivers closed 
November 8th. The St. Peters opened again, but closed in a lew days. 
Coldest day of the winter, February 18th — 37 (leg. below zero. In 
1849, 85 arrivals. Rivers closed December 6th and 8th. Coldest day, 
December 30th — 31 deg. below zero. In 1850, 104 arrivals. Rivers 
closed December 3d. Coldest day, January 30th, '51 — thermometer 
32.5 deg. below zero. 

The periods ofthe first arrivals in the spring are as follows, viz : 

1844, April 6th, Otter, Capt. Hrrris ; 1845, April 1st, Otter, Capt. Har- 
ris ; 1846, March 31st, Lynx, Atchison ; 1847, April 17th, Cora, Throck- 
morton ; 1848, April 7th, Senator, Harris; 1849, April 10th, Dr. Frank- 
lin No. 2, Harris ; Highland Mary No. 2, Atchison, and Senator, Smith, 
arrived same day. 1850, April 19th, Highland Mary No. 2, Atchison, 
and Nominee, Smith, arrived same day, crowded with passengers. 
1851, April 4th, steamboat Nominee, Capt. Smith, arrived at 6 a.m. 
with 100 passengers ; she left Galena, March 31st, and arrived at Still- 
water April 3d — was much retarded by high winds, &c. 

Average closing of the navigation, November 26th. The average 
spring arrivals of the above is the 8th of April. On an average, the boats 
cease running two weeks before the close of navigation here, and are de- 
tained below Lake Pepin the same time in the spring after the river 
opens at St. Paul — the navigation being interrupted from the 15th No- 
vember to the 8th of April— less than five months in all. 

Above and below the lake, the river is only closed on an average of 
less than four months in the year, viz : from Nov. 26th to the 25th March. 

From files of the Minnesota Pioneer, and Chronicle and Register, 
which have been kindly furnished by his Excellency, Gov. Ramsey, I 
extract the following review of the weather for the winter of 1849-50, 
together with that of the early part of spring, by which it will be seen 
that the present season is about three weeks earlier than the last. 

18,49, December 7th. thermometer 2 deg. below zero ; 8th, river closed 
at St. Paul ; 14th, thermometer 14 deg. below ; 17th, 22 deg. below ; 
20th, 7 deg. below; 24th, 13 degrees below ; 25th, 15 deg. below: 28th, 
a heavy snow storm (13 inches) ; 29th, 25 deg. below; 30th, 31 deg. 
below — clear and ealm ; 31st, wind south-east and warmer, 22 deg. be- 



179 



low. January llth r 1850, 4> January thaw ;" thus iar, during the pre- 
sent month, warm a nd pleasant — snow disappearing rapidly ; 20th, ten 
inches of snow fell. February 1st, the month just passed was the most 
pleasant January we ever experienced in any climate ; there were but 
three days in it suffici imtly cold to require an overcoat, and one of these 
was the 31st. Februa ry commenced with indications not quite so fair, 
but still very beautiful weather ; 3d, thermometer down 30 deg. below 
zero. It soon moderate d, and the balance of the month continued warm, 
mild, and spring like, th awing rapidly and ending in a heavy rain and 
snow storm. March entered like an angry lion, and the rigors of winter 
again came suddenly upon us. 

March 1st, A copious rain set in last night, and continued till this af- 
ternoon, when it changed, into a snow storm. This was the first rain 
that had fallen in Minnesota since the preceding autumn ; the cold has 
been so steady since November, that potatoes have remained constantly 
frozen in the barns from that time until about the 1st of March. 

9th. Last night the clerk of the weather office gave us a few inches of 
snow, whirled into drift — a blustering little appendix to winter, but about 
as harmless as a Mexican bulletin after a battle. 13th. Turned cold 
again in the evening, with a slight fall of snow during the night. 14th. 
Cleared in a. m., getting warmer, and reviving anticipations of early 
boats. 15th. A clear bright day, rather warm. 16th. Very pleasant, 
cloudy but warm in the afternoon. 17th. Snowing very fast at 1 1 a. m. 
18th. Ten inches of snow, and w eather wintry. 19th. Wind changed to 
the south, rapidly dissolving the ,snow. 20th. Cloudy and still thawing; 
at evening a fall of snow and rairr mixed. 21st. Cloudy, and threaten- 
ing snow and rain. 22d. Cleared off cold last night, and froze hard 
enough to bear this morning ; clear and pleasant to-day ; growing warm- 
er ; the margins of the river are gelting thawed out ; few teams upon the 
ice for the last three or four days. 23d. A cold clear day — stinging 
cold — ice getting solid again. 24th. This morning, at sunrise, the ther- 
mometer stood at 2 degrees below zero, and the weather continued cold 
all day. 25th. Clear and cold, and the ice solid again upon the river. 
Those who have made bets on the arrival of boats by the 10th of April, 
look blue this morning. Bets could hardly be got on the 10th of May. 
26th. Cold, clear day ; grew mild about noon. Thawing in the sun- 
shine. 27th. Weather clear and fine. 28th. Clear and fine ; froze at 
night. 29th. A lovely spring morning. 30th. Fine, rather cooler, thaw- 
ed in the sun at 9 a. m. Mail arrived from Prairie du Chien. being the 
first received for 20 days. 31st. Warm, cloudy, and gently raining, 
which continued through the night. 

April 1st. Still raining, the river raised two inches during the night. 
Several persons looked to see the ice running out of the river, it being 
the first of April. Two Indians ventured to- lead their ponies over, tak- 
ing them home from pasture on this side, before the ice leaves. A 
dense fog at sunset. 2d. Rain still continues. 3d. Cloudy and colder, 
rain continued till this morning; river constantly rising. 4th. Cloudy, 
with high winds. 5th. Clear, with high wind ; colder at night, and 
froze. At noon the ice gave way opposite the Central House, and dur- 
ing the day moved down the stream four or five hundred yards, gorging 
in the bend below the town ; the river is clear of ice from a mile and a 
half below St. Paul to Lake Pepin. The snow has entirely disappeared, 
'■vith the exception of here and there a drift pile. As a natural cons". 



180 

i 

quence, the river has risen considerably, in all abo/ut live or six feet. 
6th. Clear, with new ice this morning. 7th. Clear, with high winds 
from north-west ; all the ice below town has vanished. 8th. Clear and 
beautiful. The river clear of ice as far as we can «ee. An abundance 
of flowers visible now along the bluff sides. 9th. Turned off cold this 
morning, with a sprinkling of snow ; more complaints begin to be whis- 
pered against the clerk of the weather office. 10th and 11th. Warmer 
and windy. 12th. A steady cold blast is sweeping down from the 
north-west, and prairie fires light up the distant horizon in the south 
and far away on the vast buffalo ranges of the north. 13th. The sun 
shines, but the wind is very keen. We have experienced more wind in 
the week past than during the preceding winter. Since the 1st instant 
the Mississippi at this point has been steadily rising. The immense 
quantities of snow in all the upper country, in some places being four or 
five feet deep, has dissolved rapidly by several days of rain, followed by 
a succession of warm sunshine. 

There is yet much snow in the neighborhood of Fort Gaines. Great 
damage has been done, the rise being greater than any spring freshet 
since 1832. The difference between high and low water mark is about 
eighteen feet. 14th. The chilling weather of the last ten days has check- 
ed the rise. Passengers arrived in St. Paul to-day, from the boats at 
the foot of Lake Pepin, where the Highland Mary arrived on the 1st. 
15th and 16th. Weather fine, but yet cool, and the water falling rapidly 
Six inches of snow fell at St. Louis on the 15th ; at Cincinnati, and all 
through the southern part of Ohio, the frost was sufficiently severe to kill 
all the vegetation. Ice was formed an inch thick. Here is manifested 
another advantage of residing in a country where vegetation does no 
start so soon. After spring really commences, we have as many months 
of fine weather at St. Paul, as they have in any of the Western States 
Here, spring comes one month later, and so do the frosts of autumn 
All we want in Minnesota is an almanac of our own, by which to re- 
christen the months, calling April March, and May April, and June May 
aud so on through the calender, would reconcile everybody to the cli- 
mate of Minnesota. 

In conclusion, here is the weatber a hundred years ago. The Rev 
Thomas Smith, of Falmouth, Maine, in his quaint Journal and Diary ox 
the weather, kept by him a century ago, has left on record data which 
prove the weather of 1750-51 to be the mildest of which there is any 
chronicle in New England. 1 append a few extracts : 

January 6th. No snow on the ground. 7th. Snow storm. 12th 
Thaw. 15th. The frost is entirely out of the ground. 21st. Weather 
like May. 24th. This winter will go down memorable to posterity. 

February. This month has been more like spring than winter ; mode- 
rate generally, and several days as warm as May. 18th. Pleasant wea- 
ther still. This winter ends — a wonder through the whole. 

March 5th. Snow storm. 13th. Fine spring weather the rest of the 
month, except the last four days. 

Note.— These reports are but a beginning of a series of regular me- 
teorological observations, which will be continued regularly throughout 
the year — the design being to test the climate fairly and show its mani- 
fold advantages. I am happy to add, in this connection, that Mr. Chas. 
Cavileer, who shortly proceeds to Pembina in latitude 49° will also be- 



181 



stow his attention upon the matter at that point — the northern extreme of 
the Territory. 1 hope that others in various places will imitate his ex- 
ample ; and that as much valuahle information as possible may be elicit- 
ed, which will prove alike useful and interesting to every present and fu- 
ture resident of Minnesota. 



REVIEW OF THE WEATHER UP TO APRIL 15, 185*. 



The weather during the first half of the present month, has been a 
complete counterpart to that of the greater part of the preceding one ; 
and while the mean temperature has been about the same, it is much 
lower than that of March, reckoning from the 10th to the 31st ; the early 
part of that month was very cold, which equalized the temperature con- 
siderably. Thus far in April we have had high, cold, wintry, and very 
bracing winds from the N. N. W., with fine, clear, cold days at times — 
the mercury falling as low as 15 degrees, and to and below the freezing 
point on ten days in succession — giving us sharp and frosty mornings 
and new made ice a half inch in thickness in a single night. At other 
times damp, raw winds prevailed, with clouded skies and rains ; this 
was the case upon the 1st, when heavy April showers fell throughout the 
day. The 2d was cloudy, raw, boisterous, and very wintry. 4th. The 
same. The first steamboat of the season, the Nominee, arrived amid a 
very gloomy and discouraging prospect to her hundred passengers. The 
6th was quite warm and pleasant. A snow storm, the heaviest of the 
winter set in from the north at Fort Ripley (Gaines) at noon ; and reach- 
ing St. Paul before day light on the 7th, continued falling thick and hea- 
vily, accompanied by a heavy gale till 10 p.m. ; from 6 inches to over 
one foot in depth fell between here and the fort. 

On the afternoon of the 8th, the weather cleared off pleasantly, and 
continued cold and bracing for several days, during which the sun shone? 
warm and bright, and the snow disappeared so rapidly that on the 10th 
the ground was clear and dry again. On the 12th another storm of rain, 
with clouds, fog, and dampness come upon us ; the weather being mild, 
raw, and very disagreeable, this continued till the evening of the 13th, 
and has since been more pleasant. On the 4th and 5th a heavy snow 
storm fell to the depth of two feet in the country south of us, between 
Galena and Chicago, beyond which we have not had advices. Since 
the 15th of November last, snow has fallen in this region on 38 different 
days — many, however, were mere sprinklings; the whole quantity being 
about 2£ to 3 feet in depth. In this interval (five months) rain has fallen 
on 14 days, and to the depth of about two inches. 

The present season, like the springs generally, is very backward. 
Vegetation has not yet commenced ; and things look gloomy and unfa- 
vorable to the early April immigrants, particularly to those who are unac- 
quainted with our climate — some of whom who arrived on the Nominee on 
the 4th and 11th, and also on the Dr. Franklin No. 1 on the 13th inst., 
have already left dissatisfied, and with an unfavorable opinion of the 
country. The absence of such people is a general blessing — they are 
dead weights and drawbacks upon the prosperity of any community, and 
are not wanted here. Minnesota is not as yet a second paradise, nor a 
land flowing with milk and honey; far from it. She too has her disad- 



182 



vantages, and they are now, in a cold late spring, most apparent to the 
early comers and to her detriment. With stout, unfailing hearts, and 
strong arms to till her fertile and luxurious soil, and improve the thou- 
sand advantages bestowed upon her so liberally by nature, she will soon 
be as near the El Dorado as any land upon the globe. 

Early in May an almost magical change takes place. All nature be- 
comes beautiful and animated ; vegetation leaps upward, and is visible 
to the eye in its daily growths, and must in fact be seen to be believed. 
Grains and seeds, soww in Mayor June, ripen earlier and come to more 
perfection than in any of the Eastern, Middle, or Western States. Such 
in part is Minnesota. Reader, if it is possible for you to do so, come 
and settle within her borders, and learn to live and enjoy the boon of 
life, as it was designed by the Creator you should enjoy the many bless- 
ings vouchsafed to you on earth ; and, my word for it, you will never 
once regret the change. 

April 25. For past ten days, the weather has been fully equal to that 
described in March, and is warm and pleasant. The prairies are be- 
coming green and beautiful, and all nature will be soon arrayed in the 
cheerful liveries of the lovely spring. 

I have received from Vanleer Eaches, of Delaware county, Pa., ame- 
lereological report for the months of December and January in that lati- 
tude, from which I make the following summary. By comparing it with 
the reports of the winter here — being 5 deg. to the northward — a striking 
difference will be perceptible. 

December. — Minimum temperature, 11; maximum temperature, 54; 
mean temperature, 35.87. Coldest day, Dec. 30th ; mean temperature 
of do., 17 deg. Warmest day, Dec. 3d; mean temperature of do., 52. 

January. — Minimum temperature, 7; maximum temperature, 60; 
mean temperature, 37.32. Coldest day, 31st; mean temperature of do., 
13.5. Warmest day, 16th ; mean temperature of do., 55. 

Very little snow had fallen, and the winter in the Middle and Western 
States has been remarkably mild and pleasant. 



188 



LETTER OF PROFESSOR MATHER, OF OHIO. 

The following letter, received a few days since from Professor W. 
W. Mather of Columbus, Ohio, addressed to ihe Secretary of this society, 
ought to have occupied another place in this pamphlet, but is inserted 
here as matter of necessity, the printing of the pamphlet having been 
almost completed when the letter came to hand : 

Columbus, Ohio, Feb. 22d, 1C51. 
My dear Sir : 1 received your letter informing me of my election as a 
member of the Minnesota Historical Society, and the accompanying 
pamphlet a few days since. It will give me great pleasure to aid the 
praiseworthy objects of your society by any means in my power. 1 will 
send a box of minerals and rocks illustrating the principal rocks and 
useful minerals as connected with geology and some of my geological 
reports. 

in 1835 I traveled through some parts of Wisconsin and Minnesota 
with Mr. Featherstonhaugh, and made many interesting observations on 
the geology, topography, &c, of that country, the report of which has not 
been published. VVe went from Mackinaw to Green Bay, where we 
procured a bark canoe and a crew of voyageurs, ascended the Fox 
river, descended the Wisconsin, ascended the Mississippi to Fort Snell- 
ing, and thence up the St. Peters lo the Terre Bleu river, ascended that 
stream a few miles lo ascertain about the copper mines of the old French 
traveler, Le Sieur, found the green earth, but it contained no copper. 
We then descended the Terre Bleu, and ascended the St. Peters to Lac 
qui Parle, mostly by water; there hired horses and a horse cart for bag- 
gage, went across the prairies to Lac Travers, thence across the portage 
between Lac Travers and the St. Peters, and westward, bearing a little 
to the north, to the Coteau de Prairie ; thence south-eastward to Big 
Stone lake, and along the west side of that lake to its outlet ; thence east- 
ward and southward back to Lac qui Parle at Fort Renville, where Mr. 

Williamson and the missionar}' families of himself and Mr. were 

then stationed. Mr. Featherstonhaugh thence descended by water, 
while I went across the prairies with the interpreter (old Milon, as he 
was called) to the Travers des Sioux. Mr. Sibley was kind enough to let 
this old interpreter go with Mr. Featherstonhaugh and myself, on that 
tour he was very useful to us. Mr. F. overtook me at Travers des 
Sioux with the canoe, and we descended to Fort Snelling, where we re- 
mained till the winter snows came, and then we descended by canoe to 
Galena, discharged our men, and took steamboat for St. Louis. My re- 
port of that expedition contains many matters of interest in relation to 
geology and the topography of that region ; and my topographical sketch 
of the meanderings of the St. Peters has been appropriated by Mr. Fea- 
therstonhaugh in his report without acknowledgment. If I can procure 
that report, I will place it at the disposal of the society, if they wish it. 

I have the honor to be your obedient servant, 

W. W. MATHER. 




184 



INDEX 

Acts, Resolutions &c. of Legislature, ----- G5 

Address of Gov. Ramsey, ------ 4 

Address of S. R. Riggs, ■ - - - - - 132 

Address of H. R. Schoolcraft, - 144 

Annual meeting of Society, ------ 2 

Annual Report of Secretary, - 10 

Agents Indians, &c, - - - - - - - 14 73 77 

Appendix, - - - - - - - - 30 to 131 

Appropriations b?f Congress, - 17 

Agriculture, - J 8 41 113 123 125 

Attoniies at Law ------ 70 

Armor)', Western ------- ]!» 

Academy Military i<) 

Boundaries of Territory, ------ 18 

Compass variations, 40 

Contributions - 30 

Courts, - 70 

Counties, -------- 14 

Churches, - - - - - - - - ;7 126 12S 

Census, - - - 114 

Committee, &c, ------- iy 

Delegate to Congress, - - - - - 13 54 58 

Elections, 13 

FortSnelling - - - - - - - 19 110 

Fort Ripley, -------- 110 

Health, -------- 18 

Half Breed Tract, ------- 9^ 

Historical References, ______ 43 

Itasca, --------- 16100 

Judiciary, - - - - - 17 

Letters and Contributions - - - - - - 25 38 

Long Prairie, - - - - 16 

Lake Pepin, 16 96 

Land Sales and Officers, - ------ - 14 

Latitude and Longitude, ------ 41 

Lac qui Parle, ------- - 101 

Lexicon Dakota, ------- 142 

Mail Routes, -------- m 

Mendota, -------- 16 

Mills, - - - 17 101 

Mather, -------- 183 

Meteorology, - -- -- -- - 158 

Officers, 13 63 67 69 

Point Douglass, - - - - - - - - 16 17 94 

Post Offices, ------- Hi 

Pembina, - - - - - - - - 16 38 121 

Public Printers, - -- -- -- 67 

Red river of the North, ------- 38 40 

Religion, 17 25 126 128 

Roads, 17 112 

Revision of Laws, ---- --- 67 

Rivers, -------- - 41 

Schools, - - - 17 117122 127 

Sauk Rapids, - -- -- - - - 16 

Smithsonian Institution, ------ 25 

Stillwater, 16 88 

St. Anthony Falls, 15 17 92 

St. Paul, - 15 84 

St. Croix and the Pineries, ------ 90 

Steamboats, 102 114 116 131 

Taylor's Falls, ------- 101 

Territorial Organization, , - - - - - - 13 52 

Watab, 16 

Wabashaw, - 16 96